Venkateshwaran V V. Vishnu Priya Selvaraj Jayaraman R. Gayathri Kavitha.S



Glyphosate is a herbicide that poses a significant threat to human and animal life. Hepatotoxicity induced by the ingestion of herbicide (glyphosate) in diabetic rats can be reduced/lessened by the action of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A & vitamin C).


The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of antioxidant vitamins on the expression of SPARC, MUNC.18, and syntaxin mRNA in the gastrocnemius muscle of glyphosate-induced rats.


Adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I: served as vehicle control (corn oil alone); Group II: Control rats were injected intraperitoneally daily with glyphosate; Group III: glyphosate induced rats treated with vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight), once daily through gastric incubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were anesthetized, blood was collected, sera were separated, gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of gene expression analysis.  Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin levels were measured in the serum whereas, HNF-1 alpha mRNA and SREBP-1c proteins were measured in the skeletal muscle using Real Time-PCR analysis using gene specific primers and ELISA methods. The data were statistically analyzed using One-Way-ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test were used to check the statistical significance and considered at the levels of p<0.05.


Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) test and serum insulin levels were estimated for diabetes in this study. Results of this study showed that glyphosate exposure significantly raised the fasting blood glucose and insulin levels (p<0.05). However, treatment with the antioxidant (Vitmim C and E) improved the glycemic control and insulin levels near to that of the control levels (p<0.05). SPARC protein levels in comparison between three groups provides data that implies the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins on glyphosate induced rats. Also, MUNC. 18, Syntaxin protein expression was also determined at their mRNA level using real time/qPCR analysis. Those data provide a clear conclusion of the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins on glyphosate induced diabetes mellitus.


Our current findings show that antioxidant vitamins E and C have a greater impact on the expression of SPARC, MUNC18, and syntaxin protein. The efficacy of naturally abundant antioxidants in tissue homeostasis is elaborated in link with Syntaxin and Munc 18 protein at its mRNA level expression. Also these findings pave the way for future research to gain a knowledge of antioxidants mechanism of action in glucose homeostasis.

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