Evaluation of serum Neuropilin-1 level as a Potential Marker of COVID-19 severity in Iraqi population.
Background: The protein neuropilin-1 (NRP1) has multiple functions in the body, both normally and when things go wrong. Axon guidance in peripheral nervous systems and the central, cell survival, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, differentiation, proliferation, and migration are just few of the many biological activities that NRP1 regulates. Since NRP1 was revealed to be the facilitator and cofactor of SARS-CoV-2 entrance during COVID-19 infection, this may indicate a new potential target for intervention against COVID-19. Objective: to determine if serum levels of Neuropilin-1 are associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection for used as a disease predictive marker. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty patients with COVID-19(80males, 40 females) participated in the study. and 60 controls (40 males, 20 females) who were a apparently healthy adults (ages above 25 years). Subjects were collected from the AL-Amal hospitals and the AL-Shefaa center in AL- Najaf, Iraq, between January 2022 and May 2022. Murray score were used to rank the degree of illness in patients who were gathered at the time of admission. The ill and healthy groups had blood samples obtained, and their demographic and clinical information was recorded. Serum levels of C-reactive protein and neuropilin-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Serum ferritin, D- dimer, and CBC were measured in FIA by ichroma. Results: Serum levels of Neuropilin-1 were found to be higher in patients group, especially in cases of mild/moderate (0.911±0.182) (P. 0.001), severe(1.88±0.606) (P. 0.001), and critical(3.68±0.84) (P. 0.001) cases as compared to healthy controls (0.547±0.115) groups respectively. While, show a significant negative correlation was obtained between (SPO2, TC, HDL.C, LDL.C, and Lymphocyte, p.value=0.001 with NRP1 levels in the COVID-19 patients group. At the same time, a significant positive correlation was obtained between (TG, VLDL.C, WBCs, neutrophil, N/L ratio, D-dimer, Ferritin, and CRP, p.value=0.001 with NRP1 levels in the COVID-19 patients group. Conclusion: Serum NRP1 concentration was higher in COVID-19 patients specially in sever and critical cases compared to healthy controls, and mild/moderate patients group. which might be a valuable indicator of the disease's severity. High level NRP1 concentrations in the early stage of COVID-19 should be closely monitored in order to avoid the development of pulmonary fibrosis as soon as possible and other injury organs.
COVID-19; Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) , D-Dimer, Ferritin, NLR.