HIV Nursing 2022-09-24T13:16:12+00:00 HIV Nursing Society Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Aims and scope</strong><br /><strong><em>HIV Nursing</em></strong> has been developed as a forum for those at the forefront of caring for people affected by HIV. This peer-reviewed journal is supported by a highly respected Editorial Board drawn from a wide range of nursing specialties. This is further strengthened by an Advisory Panel, whose members make regular contributions to the journal.<strong> ISSN: 1474-7359</strong></p> <p><br /><strong><em>HIV Nursing</em></strong> is intended to provide a medium for communication on issues relating to HIV care, which will be run by the care professionals for those involved in the day-to-day matters affecting the lives of patients.<br />HIV Nursing is listed in the CINAHL, Elsevier, Scopus, Thomson Gale, Mosby Year Book, Cabell’s, INANE and EMNursing databases.<br /><br /><strong>Publication</strong><br />The Journal is printed quarterly and articles are available in print and on the website for NHIVNA members and other subscribers. </p> THE IMPLICATION OF INCOMPLETE MEDICAL RESUMES ON HEALTHCARE INSURANCE CLAIMS IN INDONESIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 2022-09-20T10:08:39+00:00 Ade Johan Subekti Nugraha Ghaida Fauziyyah Rachmawati Petra Siska Yuniar Nunu Nur Agustiani Viny Malisanda Tira Parista <p>This research is based on the background of the important role of medical resumes on claims processing of Healthcare Insurance in Indonesia widely known as Healthcare BPJS. The completeness of the medical resume is still a problem as it is not as required in healthcare services. The aims of this research are to review systematically the triggering factors for incomplete medical resumes, and to know the implications of incomplete medical resumes on BPJS claims. This research uses the synthesis grid method with the subjects used are books, literature articles, and internet media related to the implications of incomplete medical resumes on BPJS claims. The results of this research are that there are several factors that trigger the incomplete medical resume, which is dominated by the man factor (no in charge doctor of service/DPJP signature), followed by the machine factor, method, and material factors. Meanwhile, there are several implications of incomplete medical resumes on BPJS claims, namely pending, delay, and returned claim.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 IMPLEMENTATION OF FULFILLING IN THE INPATIENT INFORMED CONSENT FORM TO SUPPORT THE SNARS HPK 6.4 2022-09-20T10:18:02+00:00 Alita Agustina Raden Minda Kusumah Kiki Nurlaela Sari Nurzakia Wirianti Muhammad Alfan Noor Nurul Fadzrina Dea Nurlailatul Qodriyah <p>The implementation of filling out medical record files based on the Minister of Health Regulation must be complete and clear as well as filling out the informed consent form. Prior to examination, treatment, and medical action, the patient must first request consent. It is very important to have informed consent because it relates to the right of each person to self-determination, the right to health and the right to information, but in practice there is an incomplete form of informed consent. The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the implementation of filling out the informed consent form in inpatients to support the SNARS HPK 6.4 assessment at Hospital X. The research method used was descriptive research with a quantitative approach. Data collection techniques used were interviews, questionnaires, and literature study related to the subject matter. The population in the first quarter was 237 files with a sample size of 70 medical record files and 33 medical personnel. The results showed that the completeness of the patient's identity was 100%, while the incomplete identity of the person in charge was 11.42%, the contents of the information were 8.57%, the doctor's signature was 5.71%, the patient's signature was 4.28%, the patient's witness signature was as much as 27.14% and the signature of the hospital witnesses as much as 7.14%. The assessment of the HPK 6.4 accreditation standard was obtained by 75%, there were 2 elements that were not completely fulfilled. This can be caused by several factors, namely still not in accordance with standard operating procedures (SOP) and then still not completely filled in, namely the identity of the person in charge of the patient, the contents of information, and authentication. So it can be concluded that the implementation of filling out the informed consent form for inpatients to support the assessment of SNARS HPK 6.4 at Hospital X is not in accordance with the standards listed in the Minister of Health Regulation, because there are still components that are not completely filled in, and the SNARS assessment for HPK 6.4 elements is new. partially accomplished.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE LEVEL, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR OF HANDWASHING WITH SOAP (CTPS) WITH DIARRHEA INCIDENCE AT PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER X PURWAKARTA 2022-09-20T10:21:25+00:00 David Hadi Saputra Zakaria Ansyori Anggraini Nur Fianti Fanny Oktafianny Risma Erviana Witri Indryanti Noer Yuda Supratmanto <p>Diarrhea is a disease that is often found in health facilities. Diarrhea is one of the transmitting diseases with a relatively high morbidity and mortality rate. Diarrhea is a disease that is influenced by several factors, one of them is public behavior. One example of common public behavior is the lack of public enthusiasm to wash their hands with soap before eating. This is an analytic observational study with a cross sectional research design. The data is conducted from the patients of Public Health Center X on July 2021 by using educational questionnaires, attitude, and the relations of hand washing with soap behavior with the occurrence of diarrhea. The research data is displayed in tabular form and analyzed with a chi-square statistical test. In this research, obtained from 80 subjects, with 45% research subjects did experience diarrhea within the last 3 months, whereas the rest did not experience diarrhea. In this research as well obtained a very significant relationship between knowledge, attitude, and hand washing with soap behavior with the occurrence of diarrhea.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANALYSIS OF THE COMPLETENESS OF ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORD OF OUTPATIENTS AT THE REGISTRATION SECTION OF THE PUBLIC SUKARAHAYU SUBANG HEALTH CENTER 2022-09-20T10:25:42+00:00 Encep Yayat Yunita Hermayanti Dola Ramalinda Annisa Tuzahroh Cientya Surya Pratiwi Vianeisya Athalia Dzakkiha Azizatul Ummat Gina Salsabila Haerani <p>Completeness of filling in patient identification is very important in filling out electronic and manual medical record forms. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of completeness and incompleteness in the RME (identity). Researchers used quantitative methods with a descriptive approach. Population and sample using Slovin calculation. The results of the average percentage of unfilled identities in January were 37% of 93 data, February 33% of 94 data and March 31% of 96 data collected every month. Factors that cause incomplete filling of electronic medical record files at the registration section are communication between officers and patients, and often patients are negligent in bringing their identity (KTP/KK/SIM)</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EFFECT OF WORK DISCIPLINE AND COMMUNICATION ON NURSE PERFORMANCE IN EMERGENCY ROOM HASAN SADIKIN GENERAL HOSPITAL 2022-09-20T10:30:07+00:00 Faizal Rachman Dedi Suryadi Aditya Hilmi Fauzi Fahmi Daenuri Vina Puspia Wati Melinda Frisca Tamba Yulli Yulianti <p>Every nurse has a different level of performance. This is because each individual has different abilities in capturing knowledge and skills. In addition to the nature of all the individuals themselves also have a lot of influence on the ability of nurses. Therefore, the management makes various efforts to support the creation of various efforts to support the creation of high performance in nurses. Organizational management also requires qualified nurses so that organizational performance can run according to organizational plans. The research method used is a survey, the survey method is designed to obtain information about the status of symptoms at the time the research is conducted with the aim of describing what variables or conditions or conditions exist in a situation. Based on the results of hypothesis testing and discussion of research results, it shows that the three alternative hypotheses (Ha) proposed in this study are accepted, and reject the null hypothesis (H0). There is a significant positive effect of work discipline and nurse communication together on the performance of nurses in the Emergency Room. This condition indicates that work discipline and nurse communication are two important variables to consider in explaining the increase in nurse performance. The results of the "F" test analysis obtained a magnitude of 26.57. This magnitude was consulted with the value Ftable (0.01), which obtained a magnitude of 5.49, which indicates that the correlation coefficient between work discipline and nurse communication together with nurse performance is very significant.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Review of the Use of Color Codes in Outpatient Medical Records to Prevent Errors in the Medical Record Alignment System at Hospital X Bandung 2022-09-20T10:35:25+00:00 Heri Saepudin Yeti Fifi Vibrianti Nova Windani Sapitri Syifa Rizkia Rahman Mia Nur Rohimmah Suci Mutiara Rahman <p>Hospital X Bandung is one of the teaching hospitals that has various services, one of which is the service in the medical record section. The medical record also consists of several units, including a medical record file storage unit, but there are obstacles in the storage section, namely the use of a color coded system in outpatient medical records that are already running but have not fully met expectations because the standard <em>operating procedure </em>that governs this system has not made officially by the medical record installation so that it has an impact on the storage of outpatient medical records and on the storage officer.</p> <p>This research uses descriptive research with observation and interview methods. This research consists of population and research sample. Officers at the outpatient service locker as a population and this population also acts as a sample in this study.</p> <p>Based on the results of the study, the use of color coding in outpatient medical records did not work properly, this was evidenced by the results of interviews with outpatient medical record sub-section officers. outpatient medical records the obstacle that is the obstacle is the time constraint because there is no special officer to paste the color code on the outpatient medical record file and the efforts made for now are helping each other and going out in the field to help other officers in providing color codes on the file outpatient medical records.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Time Review of Provision of Outpatient Medical Records to Support the Effectiveness of Services at the Bandung City Hospital 2022-09-20T10:39:49+00:00 Imam Rosadi Dola Ramalinda Ratu Balqis Khairunnisa Alfarisi Asri Juliani Qothrunnada Salsha Mutia Latifah Devina Qurrota’Aini Setiawan <p>The availability of medical records is very simple, the distribution is fast, precise and efficient. If the distribution of patient medical records to the intended polyclinic is not on time, the services that doctors can provide to patients will not be effective. The general objective of this research is to see the time of provision of outpatient medical records in RSUD Kota Bandung. This study uses a type of desktop research with a qualitative approach. For 2 days starting on 17-18 February 2020 starting at 09.00-11.00 files were obtained 895 medical records, then samples were taken of 20 outpatient medical records measured by the time of provision. As many as 20% of patients receive outpatient medical records of ≤ 10 minutes, while 80% of patients receive medical records that are ≥ 10. According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health Number 129 / Menkes / SK / II / 2008 the standard of waiting time for outpatient services is determined by way of which averaged &lt;60 minutes. Based on these results it can be ignored that the time for providing medical records at the Bandung City Hospital has met the minimum service standards. It is recommended to the Bandung City Hospital to maintain and improve service quality.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Outpatient Registration Officer Performance : Patient's Versus Officer's Perspective 2022-09-20T10:44:20+00:00 Melani Shintya Andiani Yohanes Argo Sudarga Dola Ramalinda M. Panji Abdillah Neo Erawan Arelia Najla Abilla Fizhar Raihan Siti Karmilawati <p>To serve patients well, a sufficient number of personnel is needed according to needs. Many tasks performed by medical record officers will affect the amount and results of work that can be completed by each officer. on the other hand, the patients demand shorter waiting time and allowed zero mistake especially when it caused them to wait longer to meet the doctor. The method used in this research is descriptive observational research through a qualitative approach to analyze and describe conditions or phenomena that occur directly in the field. This study tries to provide an overview of the performance of outpatient registration officers in 2021. There are 3 data collection techniques used by researchers, namely observation techniques, interview techniques, and literature studies. From observations during observations made by researchers, 3 factors that become obstacles at the registration counter, namely due to lack of human resources at the registration counter, unstable internet connection, and misfile.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Analysis of Medical Document Imaging during Depreciation Files 2022-09-20T10:49:22+00:00 Rita Anggorowati Sahromi Isti Alfaini Mishbahul Ardhi Gebi Agustin Idham Khalid Denisa Agustina <p>Document Media Transfer is the process of transferring media from hardcopy data to softcopy (digital). So that data or documents in digital format are expected to improve performance within agencies that are directly involved in the use of documents, both in searching for data and for updating data. To find out the implementation of the electronic transfer of medical records, it is necessary to look at the process of implementing the electronic transfer of medical records and the existing constraints. One of the general hospitals owned by the provincial government (anonymous was being used upon request) implemented a process of medical record imaging in April 2013. By using a descriptive case study approach based on in-depth interviews and observation from January to May 2022, the study analyzes the implementation of the medical document imaging process during depreciation files. The subjects of this study consisted of three medical records clerks and one IT officer. The result showed that there were some stages in the process of medical document imaging as well as the depreciation files in which the lack of human resources, no fixed procedure, and work instructions, and no connections between the result of imaging and the Health Information System as well as limited budget for imaging tools for a large-size sheet of medical records has become the obstacle of the whole process.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PRINCIPLES OF LEGAL BENEFITS ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN NY KIDNEY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL RA HABIBIE BANDUNG 2022-09-20T10:53:14+00:00 Tiny Rahayu Argo Sudarga Yohanes Bagus Wahyudiono Fikri Rahman Natalia Silvani Trio Utomo Febriyanto Riswan Mahendra Ramadhini Nurrizki <p>Hospital Occupational Health and Safety Program (K3RS) based on the Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia or the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No. 66 of 2016 concerning Hospital Occupational Health and Safety, must be held considering that the hospital is an institution that has a high dangerous risk. While the concept of legal benefit as part of the purpose of the law teaches that a legal product is correct if it can provide happiness and benefit for the majority of community members. RI Minister of Health Regulation No. 66 of 2016 concerning Hospital Occupational Safety and Health has taken sides for the interests of the majority of community members including workers in hospitals, such as Health Nurses.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EFFICIENCY OF ANTINOCYCEPTIVE SUPPORT OF PATIENTS WITH ENDODONTIC INTERVENTIONS FOR ACUTE PERIODONTITIS 2022-09-20T11:31:54+00:00 Arman A Oganesan Satenik M Nikogosyan Alexey N. Morozov Alina I. Tsypkina Irina P. Ryzhova <p>Caries is the most common dental pathology. This disease is extremely common and accompanies the total human population since its inception. In prognostic terms, untreated carious lesions, with the exception of "suspended caries", necessarily turn into complicated forms - pulpitis and periodontitis. It is known that periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the connective tissue anatomical formation located in the space between the compact plate of the dental alveoli and the cement of the tooth root. In the case of unsuccessful conservative treatment or its impossibility, the issue of conservative-surgical or surgical methods of treatment - root apex resection or tooth extraction is considered. It has been proven that endodontic treatment for complicated forms of carious lesions is based on invasive intervention. In addition to stress, there are other types of adaptive reactions of the body. A natural consequence of this is the initiation of nociceptive, neurovegetative and psychoemotional reactions. The result is the formation of chronic postoperative neuropathic pain syndromes, which affects the patient's dental health and quality of life. In this case, the modulating factors are the individual characteristics of the organism and, to the greatest extent, the type of dental intervention and the adequacy of the anesthetic.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EMBRYONIC INFECTIONS AS THE MAIN CAUSE OF THE DEATH OF CHILDREN WITH EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT 2022-09-20T11:35:32+00:00 Elena A. Balakireva Igor I. Dyumin Tatiana A. Romanova Tatiana I. Pozhidaeva Tatiana I. Pozhidaeva Elena V. Podsvirova <p>Timeliness: embryonic infections are one of the most important problems in obstetrics and neonatology. Embryonic infection is diagnosed in 50–65% of hospitalized full-term newborns and more than 70% of premature babies. According to the results of pathological researches of newborns this pathology was the main cause of death in more than 40% of deceased children and it also complicated the course of the underlying disease. Purpose of the study: analysis of causes of death of severely premature babies. Materials and methods of research. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 38 case-record and protocols of pathomorphological studies of severely premature children who were in the NICU from 2016 to 2019 was carried out. The gestational age at the time of birth in the study group was composed as follows: up to 24 weeks - 13 newborns; 25-26 weeks - 51 newborns; 30 weeks - 51 newborns. There are 22 boys and 16 girls in the study group. The average age of mothers of newborns in the study group was over 28 years old, every second one was over 30 years old. 19 of them were first-time-mothers. The aggravating factors were classified into somatic (diseases of the cardiovascular system, chronic diseases of the urinary tract, endocrine diseases, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract) and obstetric-gynecological (medical abortion, spontaneous abortion, early fetal death with delay in the uterus, severe nephropathy). Results: the analysis of the postmortem report showed that the main causes of death in severe premature babies are intrauterine sepsis – 16 cases, IVH of III-IV stage caused by DIC amid the congenital infection – 9 cases, severe purulent pneumonia − 7 cases. Сongenital pneumopathies amid the congenital infection – 4 cases. In a few cases the main cause of the death was necrotizing enterocolitis, congenital bronchopulmonary dysplasia, fetal neonatal hepatitis with forming hepatic cirrhosis which was developing in utero amid the congenital infection.</p> <p>According to virological and bacteriological researches the main pathogens</p> <p>at birth were: Enterococcus faecium - 4 cases, Staphylococcus epidermidis - 4 cases, Staphylococcus haemolyticus - 3 cases, Klebsiella pneumonia - 3 cases, Candida albicans - 3 cases, Escherichia coli - 3 cases case. The conclusion: there were generalized congenital infections of bacterial and bacterial-fungal etiology and IVH varying severity in all cases of death of babies with extremely low body weight. There were accompanying pathologies like congenital infections, DIC, severe anemia, immaturity, extreme prematurity in all cases. As a rule the main reasons for the extremely early termination of pregnancy were the burdened somatic one (diseases of the cardiovascular system - in 10 women (26%), chronic diseases of the urinary tract - 21%, endocrine diseases - in 7 women (18%), a pathology of gastrointestinal tract (5 women), a childbearing pattern (50% of pregnant women) and complications in the pregnancy: a chronic fetoplacental insufficiency – 21 cases (55%), a miscarriage risk – 20 cases (52%), a delayed fetal development − 8 cases (21%), preeclampsia - 5 cases (13%).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of methods of alveolar bone preservation before dental implantation 2022-09-20T11:56:39+00:00 Irina P. Ryzhova Natella M. Pogosyan Mariya S. Novozhilova Aleksandr M. Borcov Aleksandr V. Tsimbalistov Armen F. Oganesyan <p>One of the fundamental factors for the success implantation is the sufficient alveolar bone. The required initial volume of bone tissue before implantation ensures predictability of surgical treatment, reduction of possible complications, and the absence of repeated operations.&nbsp; Was developed, the concept, of preserving the initial volume of the alveolar bone tissue in the area of the future implantation without the use of bone grafts and stimulating the biological potential of own tissue. To improve the regeneration processes, protect the postoperative area, prepare the prosthetics place, and for psychological comfort of patients, was selected a group of patients who used the developed method of bone preserving before implantation by using direct immediate prosthetics. This article presents comparative results of the developed concept with the use of a direct immediate prosthetics and a group where the postoperative period was managed without it. The concept of bone preservation before implantation allows not only to preserve the volume of its own tissues, but also prevents the development of complications characteristic of traditional methods of bone augmentation.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prevalence and Relationship of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Depression in Medical Students 2022-09-20T12:00:59+00:00 Svetlana S. Bunova Kirill A Andreev Yulia P Skirdenko Nikolay A Nikolaev Nina I. Zhernakova <p>Functional gastrointestinal disorders are extremely common in the population. Epidemiological studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with functional dyspepsia than in healthy individuals, possibly indicating an intrinsic role of these psychiatric disorders in the etiopathogenesis. This cross-sectional study included 669 first- to fourth-year medical students at Omsk State Medical University. The study revealed a high prevalence of depression among medical students, significantly exceeding the average population data. An extremely high prevalence of undiagnosed gastrointestinal pathology was found among young people receiving higher medical education. The extremely high prevalence of GI syndromes combined with depression revealed in the study requires a comprehensive study in order to establish the leading causes of this association.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The cytoprotective property of ethoxidol in patients with coronary heart disease 2022-09-20T12:17:18+00:00 Olesya V. Romaschenko Michail V. Pokrovsky Sergey V. Nadezhdin Vladimir G. Kukes Nina I. Zhernakova Petr K. Alferov Natalia D. Grischenko Ludmila R. Zakirova Anastasia V.Morozova Julia A. Savvina <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The widespread prevalence and high mortality rate from coronary heart disease (CHD), despite the accepted treatment standards, aim at finding the most rational drug combinations, expanding the range of drugs, and developing personalized approaches to their use.</p> <p><strong>Research tasks:</strong> determination of the cytoprotective properties of the antioxidant drug ethoxidol in patients with CHD.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> We examined 30 patients with CHD: stable angina pectoris of I-III functional classes. To determine the cytoprotective properties of ethoxidol, blood leukocytes of patients were studied in vitro by fluorescence microscopy using an Eclipse Ti-U inverted fluorescence microscope (Nikon, Japan). By staining leukocytes with fluorescent dyes (MitoTracker ™ Red CMXRos, Calcein AM, Ethidium bromide), living and dead cells were determined, mitochondrial fluorescence, and the cell viability index (VI<sub>cells</sub>) was calculated. The materials were processed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>with the introduction of ethoxidol into a sample with a leukocyte suspension, a significant increase in VI<sub>cells</sub> by 21% (from 41% to 62%, p &lt;0.001) was observed, which indicates the presence of a cytoprotective property in this drug. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the VI<sub>cells</sub> index showed two variants of changes in cell viability: in 80% of patients VI<sub>cells</sub> was increased, on average, by 28% (from 36% to 64%, p &lt;0.001) and in 20% of patients VI <sub>cells</sub> was decreased, on average, by 10% (from 68% to 58%, p &lt;0.05). The groups significantly differed in the initial level of cell viability (36% versus 68%, p &lt;0.01), and in the initial level of mitochondrial fluorescence intensity: in the group of increasing cell viability under the influence of ethoxidol, the initial value of mitochondrial fluorescence was significantly lower (114.17 ± 3.63 relative units) in comparison with a group of decreased viability (144.14 ± 10.81 relative units, p&lt;0.01). The value of mitochondrial fluorescence changed in both cases upward, but without achieving the reliability of differences.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>the antioxidant drug ethoxidol has cytoprotective properties in patients with CHD. At the same time, there is some variability in changes in the viability of blood cells of patients under the influence of ethoxidol in the form of an increase (in 80% of cases) or a decrease (in 20% of cases) of this indicator, which indicates the need to develop a personalized approach to prescribing this drug to patients with CHD.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pathomorphological indicators of endothelial - erythrocytic dysfunction in type I diabetes: from the period of reproduction to the elderly and senile age 2022-09-20T12:21:49+00:00 Tatyana V. Pavlova Anton N. Kaplin Irina I. Povalyaeva Lyudmila O. Zemlianskaia Lyubov A. Pavlova Igor Yu. Goncharov <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common diseases. According to the WHO, at present, the total number of patients with diabetes in the world has exceeded 100 million people. Endothelial dysfunction is an integrated syndrome of insulin resistance deepens it, increases vascular reactivity, and provokes cardiovascular disorders. In connection with this search for modern methods of detecting and identifying the presence of endothelial dysfunction in patients with diabetes is extremely important. Taking into account the above, the purpose of our study was to study the possibilities of using innovative pathomorphological approaches (scanning raster and atomic force microscopy) in the study of endothelial cell dysfunction in women with type I diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The research materials consisted of two groups. The first group included pregnant women with type I diabetes, the second group consisted of patients of various age groups. The study and morphometric processing were carried out in a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. The geometric parameters of erythrocytes were calculated as area, volume, max Z, perimeter.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion:</strong> When studying erythrocytes, it was shown that the sizes of different groups of cells did not differ significantly. Pathological forms of erythrocytes were represented by: transitional forms (capable of reverse transformation): ellipses, discocytes with a crest, flat disks, discocytes with outgrowth, discocytes with multiple outgrowths, erythrocytes in the form of a "mulberry berry"; prehemolytic forms (with changes that are irreversible): domed, spherical, in the form of a "deflated ball"; degenerative. There was a clear tendency to an increase in their content with increasing age of the patients, which, apparently, is associated with the duration of the course of the disease. In the older age groups of patients with diabetes mellitus I, the erythrocyte cavity depth indicators varied significantly, therefore, there was no significant increase in this indicator compared to the biological norm group for this age; on the contrary, it was decreased. In the samples of the uterus of pregnant women with type I DM, obtained during the caesarean section, the vessels had a greater tortuosity than in the control group. Moreover, their diameter varied significantly. Foci of destruction were identified in the endothelium. The distance between the folds of endothelial cells increased</p> <p>In the lumen of a part of the vessels, fibrin was determined in the form of separate filaments and layers, platelets, erythrocytes with stasis and sludge. The structure and shape of erythrocytes was often disrupted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Even with a short duration of the disease, deviations of the main hemorheological properties and indicators are observed, including such as changes in the basic geometric parameters of erythrocytes, their ability to aggregate and deform. Diagnosis of hemorheological disorders in diabetes can serve as an early marker of target organ damage. The study proved that changes in carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes mellitus significantly affect the properties of the endothelial-erythrocytic system, and they can be diagnosed using various modern microscopy methods at an early stage.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EFFECT OF THE MODEL OF MECHANIAL STRESS (IN VITRO) ON THE BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BIOMEMBRANE OF GRANULOCYTES 2022-09-20T12:26:28+00:00 Marina Yu. Skorkina Nina I. Zhernakova Tatyana S. Shevchenko Alexandra S. Zelentsova Alexandr S. Taranenko <p>In the microvasculature the granulocytes function under conditions of force impact from the shifting layers of the moving plasma while the erythrocytes and endothelium cells excrete ATP molecules in the intercellular space acting as para- and autocrine regulators of interactions between the blood cells. It is possible to study interactions between granulocytes and erythrocytes thought purinergic signalling in small vessels under conditions close to physiological ones using the model of mechanical “stress” <em>in vitro. </em>The functional activity of granulocytes is determined by such properties of plasmalemma as stiffness and potential of a surface as well as the force of intercellular adhesion. In connection with the foregoing, the goal of the work was to investigate the biophysical properties of granulocytes’ plasmalemma in the condition of mechanical “stress” <em>in vitro. </em>Atomic force microscopy methods were used in the semi-contact scanning and force spectroscopy mode to achieve this goal. In the condition of mechanical “stress” was found an increase in the ATP concentration by 147% as compared with the control. At the same time, the biophysical properties of the surface of blood cells changed: the potential of surface and stiffness of granulocytes decreased by 32% and 15% respectively, while the negative charge of the erythrocyte’s surface increased by 112% which contributed to increase the adhesion force in the system “erythrocyte-granulocyte” by 55% as compared with the control. Thus, the obtained data allows summarized that the ATP molecule excreting by erythrocytes in the condition of mechanical “stress” is an auto- and paracrine regulator of biophysical properties of erythrocytes’ and granulocytes’ plasmalemma that have an important impact in the study of the mechanisms of intercellular interactions in the microvasculature and searching the pharmacological regulators of vascular tone.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE INFLUENCE OF impacted WISDOM TEETH ON THE STRENGTH OF THE BONE TISSUE IN THE ANGLE OF THE LOWER JAW 2022-09-20T12:29:55+00:00 Alexander A. Ponomarev Ivan V. Gayvoronsky Maria G. Gayvoronsky Alexander V. Tscymbalystov Irina V. Voytiatskaya <p><strong>Objective:</strong>study the effect of impaction of the lower third molars on the strength of the bone tissue of the lower jaw in the area of its angle.<strong> Materials and methods. </strong>On 150 preparations and 120 sagittal cuts of the lower jaws, the features of its strength in the corner area were studied. All jaws were divided into four groups: Group I - with fully erupted lower third molars, Group II - with no primordia of lower wisdom teeth, Group III - with unilateral impaction of lower third molars, and IV - with bilateral impaction of lower third molars. The results of X-ray examination of 190 patients of the first period of adulthood with fractures of the mandible were also studied. <strong>Results of the study. </strong>It was established that the growth of the lower jaw in the area of its angle in the presence of the primordia of wisdom teeth proceeds in the same way, regardless of the peculiarities of its eruption. In the absence of primordia, this growth slows down significantly. In the presence of impacted wisdom teeth in the area adjacent to these teeth, in 42% of cases there is III and 32% of cases IV class of bone tissue architectonics according to U. Lekholm and G. Zarb (1985), characterized by a low density of trabeculae of the spongy substance and a large diameter its cells. It is proved that fractures in the area of the mandibular angle most often occur with the second degree of impaction (in 65.3% of cases) and mesial inclination of the impacted third molar, most rarely - in the case of partially erupted wisdom teeth (in 12.6%). <strong>Conclusions. </strong>The presence of impacted wisdom teeth significantly increases the risk of fractures in the area of the lower jaw angle due to a decrease in the strength of its bone tissue, and the greater the degree of impaction and the greater the angle of inclination of the impacted wisdom tooth, the higher the likelihood of fractures of this localization.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Assessment of Preptin as Predict Marker for Complication in Thalassemia Major 2022-09-20T12:33:31+00:00 Hiba Ali Numan Fatima Hamza M. baker Hanaa Addai Ali <p>Hemoglobin is made up of chains of protein called globin chains, which are broken down by genetic abnormalities that cause anemia. In many parts of the world, thalassemia is a serious public health problem [1]. It's also known as Mediterranean anemia. This condition is accompanied by several biochemical alterations in the blood. Some biochemical indicators of thalassemia patients were examined and compared to a healthy control group in this study. Serum iron, ferritin, TIBC, transferrin, transferrin saturation percentage, Preptin, insulin, and lipid profile are among these markers. Preptin, iron, lipid profile, blood sugar level, and insulin resistance in the serum of patients with thalassemia were the primary objectives of this study, as well as the association between cytokine(preptin), lipid profile, blood sugar level (and insulin resistance). Material and Methods: Fifty-eight Iraqi thalassemia major patients were participated in the current investigation. They were between the ages of 1 and 28. During the months of August 2018–January 2019, these patients were registered as thalassemic patients at the "Thallassemia Unit" at the "AL-Zahra'a Teaching Hospital" in Najaf, Iraq. Thirty otherwise healthy individuals were used as a control group. Their ages corresponded to those of the patients. None of these participants were anemic or suffered from any clear systemic or chronic disorders. The glucose levels, lipid profile, TIBC, and IRON concentrations were determined using a colorimetric technique. The levels of ferritin, insulin, preptin, salusin <em>a</em>, and salusin β were evaluated and quantified using the ELISA method. Special formulae were used to determine the Body Mass Index and Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMAβ. Results: The investigation observed a substantial rise in blood iron, ferritin, TS percent, FBG, Insulin, TG, HOMA-IR, and preptin in individuals with Thalassemia Major when compared to the healthy group, but a considerably lower level in BMI, UIBC, Total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and HOMA- β, (p›0.001). The impacts of age, TIBC, Transferrin, and VLDL-C were not significant. Conclusions: The current study found that serum preptin, a newly bioactive peptide with potent hemodynamic activities, can be used to detect the onset and progression of heart disease and renal disease, and may be a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Major Thalassemia patients, particularly the cardiovascular system. Insulin resistance has a function in the progression of diabetes in people with thalassaemia.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Impact of Antenatal Maternal Risks among Grand Multiparous Women on Pregnancy Outcomes 2022-09-20T13:49:47+00:00 Huda Abdul Jaleel Ahmed Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel Mustafa Kurji Mansor <p><strong>Background</strong>- Pregnancy can be viewed as a developmental stage with its own distinct developmental tasks as well as pregnancy produces marked changes in a woman’s body, and it’s accompanied with minor discomfort such as nausea, vomiting, urinary frequency, and fatigue. Sometime the pregnancy is complicated by pathologic processes that are dangerous to the health of the mother and fetus in only 5-20% of cases. However, only limited studies have so far been done to identify the maternal isks in Antenatal and its Impact on Pregnancy Outcomes among Grand-Multiparous Women</p> <p><strong>Objective-</strong> Identify antenatal maternal risks among grand multiparous women and its impact on pregnancy outcome. <strong>Methodology- </strong>A descriptive, cross sectional study design was utilized. Purposive sample of (200) laboring women which consist two groups 100 multiparous women had (Para2-4) and 100 grand multiparous women had (Para ≥ 5) , who were admitted in three hospitals (Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Al- Yarmook Teaching Hospital, Fatima Al- Zahra’a Maternity and Pediatric Teaching Hospital), during the period from 29 April to 8 August 2010. The data was collected through interview technique and use constructed questionnaire format which consists four parts. The data were collected through face to face interview technique and by using questionnaire format. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. <strong>Results- </strong>The results revealed that the occurrence of antenatal maternal risks were significantly more among grand multipara who had (para≥5) compared to multipara who had (para 2-4) (P≤0.05), these complications were: anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, ante partum haemorrhage, stress urine incontinence, mal presentation, macrosomia, and uterus prolapse. Health status of the majority of neonates for both groups (85%, 82%) were good, their Apgar score was (7-10) in five minute of neonate's life, and most of them did not have congenital anomalies, only 3% in each group had neonate death after delivery. There is a significant relationship in age for both groups and antenatal risks. <strong>Conclusion-</strong> The occurrence of antenatal maternal risks is significantly higher in grandmultiparity compared with multiparty. <strong>Recommendations-</strong> Importance of providing health awareness for mothers concerning risks associated with antenatal which are increased in subsequence and high pregnancies through educational programs and mass media and emphasize on nursing role in this field. Improvement and promotion of antenatal health services especially for those risky women.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Psychosocial Burden among Mothers of Cerebral Palsy Children 2022-09-20T13:53:04+00:00 Raghad Nadhim suhib Saja Hashim Mohammed <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cerebral palsy is a complicated social problem that affects society in general and families in particular, and no parent wants to infect one of their children with illness or handicap. Caregivers, particularly mothers of children with cerebral palsy, are subjected to a significant psychosocial strain. The researchers wanted to see if there was a link between mothers' psychosocial stress and their children's quality of life. This study aimed to assess psychosocial burden among mothers of cerebral palsy children in Babylon Province/ Iraq. <strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 150 mothers who had child's with cerebral palsy. A non-probability sampling strategy was used to choose a purposive sample of 150 mothers. According to the Babel Health Directorate, this sample was given to two hospitals, including (Imam AL-Sadiq Hospital and Babylon Rehabilitation Centre).&nbsp; The reliability of the questionnaire was achieved through a pilot study and then presented to experts to prove its validity. The total number of items included in the questionnaire was 20-items. The data was collected by using the semi-structured interview and analyzed by the application of descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. <strong>Results</strong>: According to the findings, (49.3%) of mothers experienced a high level of psychological burden, (68.7%) experienced a high level of social burden. There are statistically significant differences between psychosocial burden and sociodemographic characteristics of mothers, such as age, education level, occupation, income, housing area, number and type of family (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Mothers expressed a high level of psychological burden as being a risk for psychiatric morbidity Because cerebral palsy is considered an additional stress factor for the family, and psychological burden mostly arises during acute events, and the chronicity of the condition predisposes these mothers to psychological depression. One of the key aims for minimizing the stress on mothers of impaired children is to design therapeutic programs to lessen psychological burden in parents of children with cerebral palsy.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Synthesis Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some New Azo-Schiff compounds Derived from 5-aminosalicylic acids 2022-09-20T13:55:03+00:00 Hussam A. Mohammed Khudheyer J. Kadem <p>In this work we are reported the synthesis , characterization of five new azo-schif compounds(M1,M2,M3,M4,M5) derived from 5-amino salicylic acid, by converting 5-amino-salicylic acid to diazonium salt, and from the reaction product it was reacted with a number of compounds Aromatic (aldehyde or ketone) to form azo compounds (H1,H2) and through the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl group, The compounds (H1,H2) were reacted with a number of aromatic compounds containing the primary amine group to obtain an amine group (C=N). ) And that these compounds are azo-schiff (M1-M5) containing azo group (N=N) and amine group (C=N). The Biological activity and physical properties of the prepared compounds were studied and The characterization was performed using FT-IR and proton NMR spectroscopes.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The antagonistic effect of biosynthesized nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus on some pathogenic plant fungi 2022-09-20T13:56:54+00:00 Argwan M. Al-Zubaidi Muhannad M. Abd Rosul M. Al-Bahrani <p>The aims of this study was biosynthesized of AgNPs from aqueous extract of a fungus (<em>Agaricus bisporus</em>) and tests their efficacy against isolated fungi, samples were collected from various rotting fruits. Five types of fungi have been isolated, the types of fungi isolated are: <em>Aspergillus niger ,</em> <em>Aspergillu flavus, pancillium, mucori.</em> All fungal isolated were identified by morphological and microscopic investigations. AFM was used for the characterization AgNPs size, the most average diameter was 33.40 nm. SEM was used for the characterization AgNPs size, the most average diameter was 50 nm. The effect of varied concentrations (1=30%AgNO<sub>3</sub>-50%AE, 2=40%AgNo<sub>3</sub>-50%AE, 3=50%AgNO<sub>3</sub>-50%AE) of AgNPs , results demonstrated that AgNPs have a significant antifungal activity. <em>A. niger</em> showed that diameter of the colony in control was 30 mm, AgNps in concentration (1) as inhibitor for <em>A. niger</em> species, the diameter of the colonies reduced to 20.5 mm, concentration (2)15mm and concentration (3) 10 mm. The diameter of penicillium was 34.5 mm in the control sample. AgNps as inhibitor for <em>Penicillium</em> species, the diameter of the colonies of this species was 16.5 mm when treated with AgNPs at a concentration of (1), concentration (2) 15mm and concentration (3) 11mm. <em>A. flavus,</em> the average diameter of the colony was (21,25) mm on control sample. While when studying the effect of AgNps on <em>A.flavus</em>, the colony diameter was 19 mm when using AgNps concentration (1), concentration(2) 13mm and concentration (3) 7.5mm<sub>.</sub> Diameter of the colony in the Mucor&nbsp; was 30 mm. as control While the effect of AgNps at concentration (1) the diameter of the <em>mucor</em> colony was 16.5 mm , concentration (2) 15mm.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Immunological and Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Parasite in Kirkuk, Iraq 2022-09-20T13:59:15+00:00 Husain F. Hassan Hiyam R. Shahab <p>The strains characterization of leishmanial parasite were investigated using immunological and molecular methods. The mean concentration of cytokines interleukin 10 (438.5pg/ml) and interleukin 7 (18.06 pg/ml) were significantly increased in sera of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis as compared to control healthy groups (85.05 pg/ml and 10.8 pg/ml) respectively. Hematological investigation revealed decrease in level of hemoglobin and platelet and an increase in the level of leuckocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in patients with cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The use of PCR system and DNA sequences provided evidence that <em>Leishmania</em> <em>tropica</em> and L. <em>major</em> are the only etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kirkuk governorate.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Molecular Evaluation of Acinetobacter Baumannii in A Sample of Iraqi Patients: Clinical and Environmental Study 2022-09-20T14:04:37+00:00 Sahar Manfi Ahmed Kadhim Hashim Yaseen Majid Mohammed Mahmood <p>The current study included molecular evaluation of infection with <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>. During the period from (November 2020) to (June 2021), 200 different samples were collected from some hospitals in the city of Baghdad. (100) samples were from the hospital environment: 36% of them are isolated from patient beds, 14% from floors, 7% from tables, 5% from incubators, 18% from hospital equipment and 20% from standing water, In addition to (100) clinical samples from infected patients, 32% were isolated from sputum, 24% from urine, 16% from wounds, 10% from blood, 3% from burns and 6% fluids such as (spinal cord, pleural and peritoneum). Infections with <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>. Microscopic examination and culture diagnosis of bacteria were carried out, and the diagnosis was confirmed by complete biochemical tests, using the diagnostic kit API 20E, as well as using the VITEK2 Compact System, in addition to studying the genetic sequence of bacteria 16S rRNA to find out the diversity and genetic difference between bacterial isolates collected from environmental and clinical sources and knowing the ability of bacterial isolates to resist different antibiotics used in the current study.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nurses' Knowledge Regarding Endometritis During Reproductive Age in Baghdad Teaching Hospital 2022-09-20T14:06:39+00:00 Huda Abdul Jaleel Ahmed Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel Mustafa Kurji Mansor <p>Background- Endometritis is an inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus. In addition to the endometrium, inflammation may involve the myometrium and, occasionally the parametrium. Endometritis can be divided into pregnancy-related endometritis and endometritis unrelated to pregnancy. The route of delivery is the most significant risk factor for endometritis, with cesarean deliveries (especially for multifetal gestation) having a much higher likelihood of leading to endometritis and a 25-fold increase in infection-related mortality [1, 2].</p> <p>Objective- This study aimed at assessing nurses' knowledge regarding endometritis during reproductive age at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Methodology-&nbsp; A descriptive analytical study design was utilized, (30) nurse in the maternity ward at Baghdad teaching hospital were selected from three places (ward, delivery room and operative room) as the study population for the period from 8th February 2018 to 10th April 2018. A structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The data were collected through face to face interview technique and by using questionnaire format. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Results- Out of 30 nurses enrolled in this study with a response rate of (100%). Results showed that more than half of nurses’ ages were between (20-50) years, (66.7%) were secondary, (73.3%) were (1-5) years of experience, half and more than two third have information about endometritis during reproductive age, while the specific details (clinical information) about that disease between not sure and don’t know.&nbsp; Results indicated that there is statistically significant association was found between nurses’ knowledge and their socio-economic status specifically (age, educational levels and their experience years). Conclusions- The Overall Knowledge of nurses’ regarding endometritis during reproductive age was good in some knowledge items and low in the others. Results concluded that nurses’ had inadequate knowledge on specific aspects of nurses’ knowledge toward endometritis. Recommendations- Encouraging nurses’ education, that workers in the field must graduates from the institute at least. Courses for the development of nurse knowledge have to raise the scientific and practical level. Raise nurse's knowledge at delivery room and maternity wards. Further studies should be conducted on large number relative to the nurses' knowledge that worker in this field.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Factors Influencing Nurses Attitudes Regarding Pain Management of Hospitalized Children 2022-09-20T14:09:48+00:00 Mohammed Talib Abed Nuhad Mohammed ALdoori <p>BACKGROUND: One of the most common complaints in medical facilities is the presence of pain. The quality of life, sexual activity, and public relations can all be adversely affected, as can work performance and day-to-day activities. Patients may experience nausea, vomiting, and exhaustion, as well as feelings of helplessness and a lack of control.</p> <p>Methodology: A descriptive correlational study by using quantitative approach is conducted throughout the period of (25th September 2020 to 20th June 2022). It conducted at pediatric wards in Babylon hospital province, a purposive non-Probability sample consists of 300 subject was collected through a self-administration report questionnaire from nurses who work in hospitals of the Babylon province. Descriptive statistics, regression analyses, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to analyze the data.</p> <p>RESULTS: The results indicated that there are significant differences in nurse’s attitudes with regard education level (p=0.046), nurses who are bachelor’s degree were positive attitudes than the others degree, and the parents and children factors have been influenced nurse’s attitudes towards pain management of hospitalized children at p-value (≤ 0.05).</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: The present study concluded that overall nurses’ have neutral attitudes toward pain management, nurse’s attitudes affected by their level of education, and marital status</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Different cities s of Anbar governorate with focus on 2009-2019 Years: Routine database study 2022-09-20T14:11:53+00:00 Essam Mohammed Abdullah Ammar M. Abdulla Mothana Ali Khalil Hekmat Ahmed Owaid <p>Background: Brucellosis as a zoonotic disease between human and animal widespread that it one of major public health problem diseases, transmitted mainly through milk and dairy products. Because of the limited epidemiological studies conducted on the distribution of Brucellosis in Anbar Governorate, Iraq. We had to study the epidemiological situation of the brucellosis distribution. Objective: A study targeted investigate prevalence with incidence of brucellosis infections in the Anbar governorate, Iraq with focus on period 2009-2019. Methods: Routine data base study depending on software and hard ware archives regarding the brucellosis distribution that registered in different cities hospitals of Anbar governorates with focus on 2009 to 2019 years &nbsp;Results: Of 3048 brucellosis case, 1151 (37.8%) were males and others1897 (62.2%) females at different hospital of Anbar governorates. Incidence of brucellosis were (21.106, 29.997, 40.652, 42.875, 30.000, 12.143, 0.571, 1.639, 1.981, 1.674 &amp; 5.994) / 100,000/ year during 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015,2016,2017 2018&amp; 2019 respectively. One peak of brucellosis incidence during 2011-2012 with sharp decrease of incidence of this disease during a period from2013-2019. Half of brucellosis in age groups 15-45-year-old. Conclusion: There has been a sharp decrease in the incidence of Malta fever in recent years, and this may be due to the use of pasteurized milk and following the correct prevention methods for the disease</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Molecular study of the Mediterranean fly insect Ceratitis capitata and the effect of the direction factor on its density on citrus trees 2022-09-20T14:14:45+00:00 Mohammed Shaker Mansor Rand Shakir Mahmood <p>An ecological and molecular study was conducted for the Mediterranean fruit fly <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> in one of the citrus orchards of Ishaqi district during the season 2020-2021. PCR technique was used to determine the gene (COXI) in mitochondria after extracting DNA from the insect. The nucleotides sequences were determined for the product of the polymerase chain reaction gene (COXl) of the insect <em>C. capitata</em>. The sequences obtained from the Korean company Bioneer were analyzed., then alignment and matching was performed with the strains registered in the World Genetic Bank, the Iraqi isolate showed 100% identical with the American strain <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> isolate 030220-11 TNE11 under the accession number JN705021.1 and with a percentage of 99.17 identical with the American strain <em>Ceratitis caetrata</em> isolate 030221-04 TNE12 under the accession number JN705054.1 and with a percentage of 99.17 identical with the Belgian strain <em>Ceratitis caetrata</em> voucher RMCA:1245 under the accession number GQ154186.1 and 99.00% identical to American strain <em>Ceratitis caetrata</em> isolate 071102-3 TNE13 under accession number JN705049.1 and 99.00 identical to American strain <em>Ceratitis caetrata</em> isolate 030221-03 TNE12 under accession number JN705053.1. The results of the genetic tree showed that the percentage of kinship of the insect with other recorded strains, the Iraqi isolate <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> rand1 appeared 100% identical with the American isolate <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> isolate 030220-11 TNE11 under the accession number JN705021.1, and the value of the genetic distance between them reached 0.002, then the Iraqi isolate was recorded <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> isolate rand1 in the World GenBank under accession number MW889894.1. The results of distributing pheromone traps (Jackson) on Citrus aurantium trees, oranges and tangerine showed that the total number of the highest number of hunted males was in the middle of the orchard for Citrus aurantium trees, which reached to 904 males, while for the orange trees, the total density of the highest number of hunted males was in the western side, which reached to 710 hunted males while the total number of the highest population density in the north side was for the tangerine trees (162 hunted males), then the insect ended up appearing in the first half of March of 2021 for all directions in all the trees of the orchard.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Role of IL-1β and Two Single nucleotide Polymorphism of NLRP3 Gene in the Predisposition to Celiac Disease in Karbala Province 2022-09-20T16:37:34+00:00 Zainab Majid Jasim Awadh Ahmed Abbas Hasan <p>Celiac disease (CD), also known as "celiac sprue," is a persistent inflammatory condition that involves the small intestine, with an incidence of 1% in the majority of population. This study aimed to investigate the role of interlukin-1β (IL-1β), two single nucleotide polymorphism (rs35829419 and rs3738447) and find the correlation between IL-1β with one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) (rs35829419) among patients with Celiac Disease. This study was conducted on a total of (60) individual in different sex and age group cases (18 males + 42 females) including (30) patients with Celiac Disease and (30) healthy individuals. CD patients were recruited at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children, through the duration of the beginning of August 2021 till the middle of January 2022. All patients diagnosed with CD by Anti-tTG IgA test. The age range of the study population was from (2-55) years with mean age 13.4 years. Blood was withdrawn from a vein, for molecular study (Sequencing PCR) and the serum was used for immunological tests including IL-1β by ELISA technique. The findings revealed that the Celiac disease patients had a significantly higher mean of IL-1β than the healthy Group, 143.94 pg\ml vs. 20.01 pg\ml, respectively. (P.value &lt;0.05). NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism, The CC genotype (wild) frequency was lower in CD patients (47.8%) than control (52.2 %) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The CA genotype (variant) frequency was higher in CD patients (57.1%) than control (42.9%) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The C allele frequency was lower in CD patients (49.1%) than control (50.9%) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The A allele frequency was higher in CD patients (57.1%) than control (42.9%) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). NLRP3 rs3738447 polymorphism, The GG genotype (wild) frequency was lower in CD patients (40.0%) than control (60.0%) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The GA genotype (variant) frequency was higher in CD patients (100.0%) than control (0.0%) with statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The G allele frequency was lower in CD patients (41.7%) than control (58.3%) with no statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). The A allele frequency was higher in CD patients (100.0%) than control (0.0%) with statistically significant difference (p&gt;0.05). In Celiac disease patients, the mean of IL-1β was higher in CA genotype than the mean of IL-1β in CC genotype (301.95 vs 86.48) respectively (P.value &lt;0.05). This indicates a strong positive correlation between IL-1β and SNP rs35829419 in CD patients (r = 0.86).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The association of TNF-α -308 G/A gene with acute myeloid leukemia for Iraqi patients 2022-09-20T16:39:25+00:00 Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan Hassan Nasser Ali Hassan <p>They include study of 80 for acute myeloid leukemia and control samples, was from her 50 sample for Patients and 30 for control healthy (mean age from 40 to 70 years), We determined the frequency of -308 G/A TNF-a gene polymorphism by tetra-amplification refractory mutation system (TARMS-PCR). Also, we determined the association of TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism with acute myeloid leukemia in Iraqi patients. Results: There was significant difference between genotype frequency of -308 G/A polymorphism for acute myeloid leukemia and control. Show GG (54%), GA (38%), and AA (8%) frequency in patients, while in control was GG 30%), GA (70%), and AA (0%), and show GG and AA genotypes, and related with etiological fraction (EF) in acute myeloid leukemia, while GA genotype related with preventive fraction (PF). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the TN gene polymorphism in position-α308 G/A may show risk factor for acute myeloid leukemia in Iraqi population and there is association between the TNF-α-308 G/A polymorphism and acute myeloid leukemia.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Incidence of Successful Trial of Normal Vaginal Birth After Previous One Cesarean Delivery 2022-09-20T16:41:19+00:00 Maha Mahmood Shakir <p class="HIVABT">Background: In the last years there is increased incidence in the rate of cesarean section (CS) birth worldwide leading to high number of women with previous cesarean deliveries, which can lead to increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. Objectives: This study is conducted to evaluate the rate of normal vaginal delivery (NVD) after one CS delivery.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Method: The study is conducted on 112 pregnant ladies having previous one CS delivery, admitted to labor ward in state of spontaneous labor. The study is conducted between 1-5-2019 to 1-12-2019. No interference done during labor apart from artificial rapture of membrane, information taken from the patient by direct questionnaire. Results: All of the112 pregnant ladies were having one previous CS delivery admitted to labor ward in state of spontaneous labor, their ages ranging from 15 to 45 years with mean age 25.5 years, their parity was between 2 to 10. Successful trial of labor after cesarean (STOLAC) was 64%. Causes of second CS were due to poor progress of labor in 50%, malpresentation in 25%, fetal distress in 15%, postdate in 5%, breech delivery in 5%. STOLAC was found increasing with the increase in number of NVD after CS, so that it is 58%when it is the first delivery after CS, 87% when it is second labor after CS ,97% when it is third labor after CS and 100% when it is forth delivery. There was significant relation with gravidity and parity p value (0.035, 0.021) and that most repeated cause for CS was poor progress of labor. Conclusions: We concluded that STOLAC was 64%, success rate dependent on proper consulting and proper evaluation of the pregnant ladies with previous CS delivery.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Role of Platelet Reactivity Index (PRI) in Antiplatelet Therapy and its Association with Vasodilator Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) for Iraqi Patient Undergoing PCI. 2022-09-20T16:43:15+00:00 Bassam A. Alzubaidi Abdulkareem H. Abd Hayder Abdulhafedh.Kurji <p class="HIVABT"><strong>Background: </strong>VASP, an actin-regulatory protein family member, controls platelet adhesion .Ticagrelor isthe first member of a brand-new agent of chemicals, thecyclopentyltriazolopyrimidines, is Ticagrelor. ADP's prothrombotic effects can be prevented by Ticagrelor's ability to block the platelet P2Y12 receptor, just as the thienopyridines. Dissimilar the thienopyridines, which are irreversible inhibitors , reversibly binding to the P2Y12 receptor, Ticagrelor almost entirely blocks ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation, as demonstrated in vitro. Because it does not require metabolic activation, Ticagrelor is an alternative to the thienopyridines. All patients receiving Ticagrelor achieve adequate antiplateleteffects.<strong> Objective: </strong>Inthis study, we examined the roleof platelet reactivity index (PRI) in antiplatelet treatment and its association with vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) for Iraqi patient undergoing percutaneouscoronary intervention (PCI).<strong> Methods: </strong>In this study, patients who were eligible for PCI were included. At least two weeks after a 90-mg dose of ticagrelor was administered following PCI, blood samples were collected from patients. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay (VASP-P) was used to detect the inhibition percentage&nbsp;of platelet adhesion. Consistently high or low levels of platelet activationon therapy can be identified by the evaluation ofplatelet reactive index (PRI) using the VASPELISA assay.</p> <p class="HIVABT"><strong>Results: </strong>The body mass index (BMI) was significant higher in patients with coronary heartdisease contrasted to thecontrol group (P &lt; 0.001). There was a significant difference inthe platelets count in patientswith coronary heart disease in comparison tothe control group (p&lt;0.05). The study groups were categorized according to the PRI-VASP % and it was found that (26.46 ± 0.75) of the patients while on (80.04 ± 0.98) of the control. The PRI-VASP % in patients was a strong significantly increased in comparison to PRI-VASP % in control group (26.46 ± 0.75versus 80.04 ± 0.98, P&lt;0.001) respectively. According to the findings, the subjects were grouped into the mean of serum VASP, and it was found that 139.56 ± 13.66 ng/L of the patients while on 238.85 ± 20.74 ng/L of the control. The mean of VASP level in patients was a strong significantly decreased in comparison to mean of serum VASP level mean in control group (24.97 ± 0.33 ng/Lversus 22.55 ± 0.28 ng/L P&lt;0.001) respectively.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Ticagrelor medication protects all patients, according to present findings in this study in Iraqi population. Also, there was no association between VASP phosphorylation and VASP.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Immunohistochemical Expression of CD44 as Cancer Stem Cells Marker in a Sample of Iraqi Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma 2022-09-20T16:45:16+00:00 Adyan K. Majid Zahraa K. Zaidan Waleed H. Yousif <p>Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world, and it is also one of the most deadly. Distant metastases and recurrence frequently cause patient death. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a crucial role in colorectal cancer spread and relapse. CSCs are a type of cancer cell that can self-renew, divide indefinitely, and differentiate in multiple directions. CD44, CD133, CD24, EpCAM, LGR5, and ALDH are some cell surface markers used to identify colorectal CSCs. They are highly tumorigenic, chemoresistant, and radioresistant, making them important in colorectal cancer metastasis and recurrence as well as disease-free survival. The current study included 60 Iraqi male patients. They were assigned into three groups. Group I consisted of 20 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients, group II consisted of 20 relapsed patients who were treated with chemotherapy and were cured, but the tumor relapsed, and group III consisted of 20 patients who demonstrated resistance to chemotherapy treatment. All clinicopathological markers were analyzed, and they demonstrated a higher tumor grade in group II compared to the other groups and a difference in age between groups. CD44 expression was higher in groups II and III than in group I, with some Immunohistochemical slides showing no typical colorectal cancer cells but positive for CD44, indicating the existence of cancer stem cells. Similar results were reported in the resistance group. The findings could be explained by the fact that strong CD44 expression indicates a large number of cancer stem cells, which are important in tumor relapse and treatment resistance. CD44 may be used as a biomarker for cancer stem cells as a findings of these results, allowing for their detection and aiding in the process of tailoring therapy for these cells within the tumor mass, minimizing tumor relapse and chemotherapy resistance.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Assessment of Interleukin -6 and Interleukin -10 in Patients sera of Urinary tract Infection 2022-09-20T17:22:20+00:00 Baydaa Ali Abd-Alwan Al-Tamimi Makarim Adil Khalil Sawsan Hassan Authman <p class="HIVABT">A urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans is one of the most common ailments in developing countries. The treatment of UTI is becoming difficult because of the increasing drug resistance against the common bacteria associated with UTI. This research aimed to determine the bacteria and to detect the host cytokine response to UTI infection. A retrospective study of data ( November 2020 through May 2021) from the microbiology laboratory of the General Baghdad Hospital was analyzed. Bacteria were isolated from 250 patients (43.88%) urine cultures of 139 UTI suspected urine samples. Both Gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> 24.5%; S.hominis 1.6%) and Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em> 62.2%; <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> 6.5 %; <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> 4.9% ).The level of IL_6 and IL-10 in patients sera were measured, the level of IL-6 and IL-10 increased significantly in UTI patients in comparison to healthy control. The level of IL-6 and IL-10 differ significantly in UTI patients sera according to their interval ages.,the highest level was at ≥ 30,when the mean± S.D of IL-6 and IL-10 reached to 77.75 pg/ml ± 8.62 for IL-6 and 233.66 pg/ml ±17.56 for IL-10, While the less level was at ≤ 50. The level of IL-6 and IL-10 differ significantly (p≤ 0.05) in UTI patients sera according to gram positive and negative bacteria. When it gave mean level of IL-6 ± S. E in infection with S.hominis (200 pg/ml ± 0.03) higher than other Gram positive bacteria ( 67.56pg/ml ± 7.82). compare with Gram negative bacteria,it gave mean level for IL-6 In serum ± S.E with K. pneumoniae was 92.90 pg/ml ± 37.52.higher than E.coli and P.aerugenosa (72.45± 12.75 ) and (38.18± 0.16) respectively.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 First record of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani as a cause of root rot disease and damping off in Celosia argenta in the Province of Karbala and Babylon / Iraq 2022-09-20T17:25:42+00:00 Safa J. Sheehan Rajaa G. Abdalmoohsin <p>This study was conducted with the aim of isolating and diagnosing the fungus that causes root rot and damping off <em>Celosia argenta</em> in some nurseries in the Province of Karbala and Babylon and testing its pathogenicity in the laboratory and under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that 20 isolates of the fungus <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> were phenotypically diagnosed. Isolation Rh16 significantly compared to the other isolates in its reduction of the percentage of germination of red radish seeds on water agar media, as the percentage of germination in it was 0.00% and the percentage of inhibition was 100% Compared to the comparison treatment, in which the percentage of seed germination was 100%. The results of the plastic pots experiment in the greenhouse also showed that the results matched the laboratory experiment, as the isolate Rh16 was significantly superior in reducing the germination rate, reaching 0.00% and 100% inhibition when treating the seeds of rooster mane with the isolated fungi compared to the control treatment, the percentage of germination in it was 100%. The results of the molecular diagnosis showed that the most pathogenic isolate of Rh16 belongs to the fungus <em>Rhizoctonia solani </em>and it was deposited in the American Gene Bank under the entry number ON383979.1., Celosia argentea<strong>, </strong></p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Does Hypovitaminosis D Have a Correlation with Peripheral Polyneuropathy Among Uremic Patients? 2022-09-20T17:28:05+00:00 Thaier Kareem Abdul- Aa'ama Fouad Shareef Dleikh Riyadh Muhi Abbood Al- Saegh Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Al-hindy <p class="HIVABT">Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a syndrome that distresses 11% of the general population. A progressive decline in the renal ability to synthesize an active form of vitamin D (vitD), and failure to preserve physiological vitD levels, required for normal body systems is one of the uremic sequels. Peripheral neuropathy (PNP) is a common neurological disorder complicating subjects with CKD. Uremic PNP (UPNP) arises when kidney dysfunction affects glomerular filtration, causing the accumulation of organic waste, which is usually attributed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that in uremic patients, hypovitaminosis D is correlated with PNP, thus this study aimed to assess the correlation of serum blood levels with incidence of UPNP. Materials and Methods: These 215 patients, cross-sectional observational study, involved 116 males and 99 females. The candidates had ESRD, evaluated and managed by qualified nephrologists, 17-80 years of age, being on regular weekly sessions of hemodialysis, for 3-4 hours/session 2-4sessions/week for the last 3-months. Blood samples of VitD (pg/ml) levels were taken from all the candidates. All cases had accomplished neurological examination in the hospital for the sensory and motor nerves and the presence and severity of PNP were assessed using "Baba’s classification". SPSS software was applied for statistical analyses. Results: The mean age of patients was (48.2±13.4) years, and the mean weight was (66.98 ± 12.87) kg. Nearly one-third of patients (N=76) had a duration of 1-3 years of hemodialysis, and only 36 patients had a duration of hemodialysis &lt; 1 year. The majority of patients (N=183) had three times hemodialysis weekly, and only 5 patients had a frequency of hemodialysis four times per week. The prevalence of UPNP among uremic patients was 63.7% (N=137). There was a significant increase in the incidence and severity of UPNP with increasing age and decreasing levels of serum vitD. Conclusion: There was a highly significant decrease in the means of vitD3 serum levels in those with compared to those without UPNP (p-0.005), and the second is the highly significant decrease in the means of serum vitD3 levels with increasing severity of UPNP (p-0.004).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Assessment the level of CD4 among patients with diabetic foot ulcers 2022-09-20T17:30:34+00:00 Rawaa Adday Ali Angham Jasim Mohammed Ali Nabil Salim Saaid Tuwaij <p>In the population, the incidence of <em>S. aureus </em>isolates among diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) has become a major issue. As a result, the goal of this study to investigation and distribution for immunological characterization among <em>S. aureus</em> from diabetic foot ulcer infection. There were 42 (70 %)) men and 18 (30 %)) females among the 60 patients (non-duplicate). The <em>S. aureus </em>isolates were identified using biochemical tests, and the Vitek-2 compact system verified that 37/60 (61.6 %) of the isolates were <em>S. aureus</em>. The immunological study included investigation the level of CD4 in patients human and experimental animals(rabbits) serum. The investigation of CD4 level explained a significantly lower in DM- foot ulcer compared with both the healthy control group and DM non - foot ulcer (P&lt;0.05). The age group &gt; 61 years within the DM-foot ulcer group patients showed significantly decreased in CD4 level compared to both DM-non foot ulcer and controls healthy with a significant difference.P &lt;0.05. As for there is no effects of sex and comorbidity, type DM, and treatment on CD4 level in all study groups. The greatest percentage of infected was Grade2 (43.3%) then Grade3 (23.3%) with significant difference,P &lt;0.05. Also, the study showed that the level of CD4 level in rabbits groups (after inducing the infection by <em>S. aureus</em> that isolate from diabetic foot ulcer patients) significantly decreased compared with both the healthy control rabbits and rabbits groups (before the infection) P &lt;0.05 while we noticed that there was no significant difference between the rabbits groups healthy control and before infected (P&gt;0.05).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Accuracy of ultrasound in the detection of breast cancer 2022-09-20T17:33:18+00:00 Doaa M. Al-Salman Jawad K. Al-Diwan <p>Background: Breast cancer accounts one third of registered female cancers and almost one quarter of female deaths from the disease. Ultrasonography has been playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of breast cancer. Breast ultrasound is ascribed a higher sensitivity for detecting breast cancer in women with dense breast tissue, women under the age of 50 and high-risk women. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound in detection of breast cancer. Methodology: The ultrasonography and histopathology reports were reviewed. Sensitivity, Specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of ultrasound were calculated. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound were 90.4% and 89.8% respectively and the accuracy of ultrasound was 90%.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Human Adenovirus Type 5 Infection and Tumor Suppressor Factors 2022-09-22T10:45:52+00:00 Muayad Ismael Ridha Zeenah Waheed Atwan <p>Several promyelocytic leukemia proteins (PML) isoforms are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including innate immunological responses, gene transcription, and apoptosis.&nbsp; Adenoviridae are non-enveloped viruses that can disrupt cellular systems that control cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as those that affect the synthesis of mRNA viruses that cause cancer. The study analyzed the gene expression of IFN (A fused gene formed when pieces of chromosomes 9 and 22 break off and trade places), into cells transfected with adenovirus and PML expression plasmids. A human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) cells were plated in 24 well plates in 500 microliters of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) for each well, and after 24 hours, the cells were harvested and used in this study. The 24-well plate was split into six rows, which were as follows: Each 6-well row was challenged with 1.2 mL of Ad-5 plasmid, PML-II, Ad-5, and PML-II, DNA transfection reagent, only serum-free medium.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Association between Genotypic and Phenotypic Formation of Biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Diabetic Foot Patients 2022-09-22T10:49:11+00:00 Aqeel A. Al-Sadawi Mahdi Al-Ammar <p>The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from diabetic foot patients. Methods: The identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was performed using morphology, microscopic examination, biochemical assays, and the vitek-2 system. In addition, the phenotypic detection of biofilm by CRA and TCP. Finally, biofilm genes (quorum-sensing) identification by PCR (Las I and Las R genes). Results: In accordance with the results obtained from 100 samples based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as biochemical characteristics and the vitek-2 system only 47 (47%) isolates were identify as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilm formation found 41 (87.23%) isolates from Ps. aeruginosa able to produce biofilm by CRA and TCP are the number of isolates showing high biofilm formation was 33 (70.2%), moderate biofilm formation was 7 (14.9%) and non-biofilm formation was 7 (14.9%). Finally, the PCR data showed that LasI gene high prevalence 43/47 (91.4%), also LasR gene was positive in 33/47(70.2%) which encode for Biofilm formation in this study.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Immune correction of the dental status of patients with type ii diabetes mellitus using removable orthopedic prostheses. 2022-09-22T10:51:36+00:00 Sofia V. Makova Anna A. Bogdanova Sergey N. Gontarev Yuliya N. Koteneva Inna S. Gontareva Alexander V. Tsimbalistov <p>The dental status of patients with diabetes mellitus and the ways of its correction are an important section in the complex of therapeutic and preventive measures for this pathology. In orthopedic patients, the condition of the oral cavity is affected not only by the presence of the main general somatic disease-diabetes mellitus, but also by all types of removable prostheses used.<strong> The aim of the </strong>study was to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive manipulations aimed at correcting the dental status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during dental prosthetics with removable types of structures, using immunomodulatory therapy and phytotherapy. In this article, we will conduct a study on the impact of previously virtually unexplored effects of immunomodulators and herbal medicines on the transformation of the functional state of periodontal tissues in patients using removable types of prostheses and having a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The clinical study was conducted on the basis of the orthopedic department of&nbsp; United Dental Polyclinic of the Starooskolsky city district. The object of the study was patients with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus lasting from 7 to 10 years. The study involved 64 people. The first group consisted of 32 people, including 23 women and 9 men. This group was a control group and was treated with traditional drugs. The second group also included 32 people, 24 women and 8 men, respectively. In this group, experimental treatment with immunomodulatory therapy and herbal medicine was carried out. As an immunomodulator, the drug "Imudon" was used, and as a phytotherapy-the drug "Bolus Huato". Clinical, laboratory, and radiological diagnostic methods were used to evaluate the results. These methods included the collection of anamnesis, complaints, oral examination, gingivoscopy, periodontal index, hygiene and bleeding index, papillary-alveolar-marginal (PMA) index, as well as cytobacteriological and statistical methods. The study of the prosthetic bed was performed before prosthetics, three months after prosthetics, 20 days after experimental treatment, and 6 months later. <strong>The results of</strong> the use of the drugs "Imudon" and "Bolus Huato" in the process of orthopedic treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus give a certain positive dynamics on the quality of rehabilitation. Thanks to this experimental technique, the patients of the main group not only normalized the conditions and microflora of the oral cavity, but as a result, there was a complete adaptation to removable orthopedic structures with a subsequent increase in the use of dental prostheses.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Preparation a new culture medium from white bean Phaseolus vulgaris for Cultivation of Leishmania parasite. 2022-09-22T10:54:38+00:00 Sabaa Taher Mohammed Seehaam Ali Qasim Nidaa Mohammed Sulaiman Sura Basil Kamal Hanan Faisal Ghazi Hayder Hassan Ghadi <p>The white beans were used to prepare a new culture medium for the growth of <em>Leishmania </em>parasite <em>in vitro</em>. The medium was composed of two phases. The white beans were used in preparation of the medium with added dextrose and misshapen blood. In the liquid phase, dextrolite solution was used as an oral perfusion solution, instead of lock solution at the first time. At the second time, the cooking water was used beans instead of lock solution . The study showed an increase in the rate of growth of the promastagote stage of parasite in the new medium, and that the increase in the number of parasites was a significant compared to the NNN-media. However, the medium in which the perfusion solution was used was better than the medium used cooking water, the rate of parasites was the highest on the eighth day of growth) 1762.5× 10<sup>4</sup>), (2162.5×10<sup>4</sup>) and (1006.9 ×10<sup>4 </sup>(cell / ml in the media of the perfusion solution, media of cooking water and NNN-media respectively. the parasite continued growth but at a lower rate and good vitality until the twenteth day, the number of parasites reached for (81.25×10<sup>4</sup>) cell / ml in the beans media and (118.75×10<sup>4</sup>) cell / ml in the NNN-media.</p> <p>This study showed that the percentage of the parasite viability was good and increased from the second day to the highest on the eighth day (96%) in the NNN-media and beans media with oral perfusion, and on the 20th day, it was only (12% and 8%) respectively. While the beans media with cooking water was only (73%) on the sixth day, all these results were obtained without making sub-culture to the parasite.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Assessment of interferon gamma and interlukine-10 among patients with celiac disease in Karbala Province. 2022-09-22T10:58:46+00:00 Zainab Majid Jasim Awadh Ahmed Abbas Hasan <p><em>Celiac disease (CD), also known as "celiac sprue," is a persistent inflammatory condition that involves the small intestine, with a incidence of 1% in the majority of population. This study aimed to investigate the role of some immune parameters such interlukin-10 (IL- 10) and interferon gamma (IFN-</em><em>γ</em><em>) among patients with Celiac Disease. This study was conducted on a total of (60) individual in different sex and age group cases (18 males + 42 females) including (30) patients with Celiac Disease and (30) healthy individuals. CD patients were recruited at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children, through the duration of the beginning of August 2021 till the middle of January 2022. All patients diagnosed with CD by Anti-tTG IgA test. The age range of the study population was from (2-55) years with mean age 13.4 years. Blood was withdrawn from a vein, the serum was used for immunological tests including IL-10 and IFN-</em><em>γ</em><em> by ELISA technique.</em> <em>The findings revealed that the Celiac disease patients had a significantly higher mean of tTg IgA than the healthy Group, 131.00 pg\ml vs. 1.99 pg\ml, respectively. (P.value &lt;0.05).</em> <em>Celiac disease patients had a significantly higher mean of</em> <em>IFN-</em><em>γ</em><em> than the healthy Group, 245.93 pg\ml vs. 52.69 pg\ml, respectively. (P.value &lt;0.05). Celiac disease patients had a significantly higher mean of IL-10 than the healthy Group, 34.86 pg\ml vs. 13.68 pg\ml, respectively. (P.value &lt;0.05). There was a significant direct (positive) correlation between IL-10 and IFN-</em><em>γ</em><em> (p&lt;0.01).</em></p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Study about The Relationship between Schistosomiasis and Bladder cancer in Najaf Al-Ashraf hyphen Al-sader Teaching Hospital-Iraq During 2020 2022-09-22T11:00:37+00:00 Mohammad Rutha Al-Sharifi Ali Abdul Razak Al-Saegh <p>The research was begin from January to December 2020 cross-sectional study doing at Al Sader Teaching Hospital in Najaf, Iraq. Collected 70 samples from patients were collehhcted randomly for the study, 14 of the samples were schistoma malignant carcinoma and 10 were benign lesion.</p> <p>The results of the study revealed that an schistoma and bladder carcinoma. Was found a positive association between them the urine analysis, X-ray used indicate present egg of schistoma in urine and tumor like structure in mucosa of bladder, biopsy done and tissue slide examine, show hitological change in mucosa, submucosa and muscle of bladder membrane.</p> <p>The study aim was knowledge the relationship between schistoma and bladder cancer in infective patient.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The most frequent bacteria in hemodialysis patients in Basra-Iraq 2022-09-22T11:02:26+00:00 Muna Abdul Sattar Faisal Yasin Y. Y. Al-Luaibi <p>Kidney failure is one of the acute chronic diseases and it is the end of kidney disease, resulting in the body’s inability to get rid of toxins, waste, and excess fluids. Here, either undergo a kidney transplant, or permanent dialysis, consequence the patient becomes vulnerable to bacterial and viral infections.75 samples were collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Basrah. with age ranged between 16 <strong>- </strong>70 years old. The samples from water entering the dialysis machine and water leaving the patient, in addition to sample from HD patient’s blood. Conventional microbiological and molecular approaches were applied. Bacteria were identification: 66 were Gram positive (72.5%) and 25 were Gram negative bacteria (27.4%). The 16S rDNA gene of 91 isolates was successfully amplified, sequenced, and proofreaded, &nbsp;the results showed that the bacterial species were belong to :<em> Bacillus </em>46 (50.5%) included 9 species; <em>B. cereus</em> was the highly frequented (29) isolates , <em>B.paramycoides</em> 5, <em>B. safensis</em> 3,<em>B. lichenformis</em> 3, <em>B. subtilis</em> 2, whereas all the other <em>Bacillus </em>species frequency was 1 isolate for each as it will be demonstrated later, <em>Staphylococcus</em> 9, included <em>S. epidermidis</em> 4, while all the other <em>Staphylococcus </em>species frequency was 1 isolate for each, <em>Pseudomonas </em>11,included <em>P. stutzeri</em> 9 , <em>P. putida</em> 1, and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> 1,<em>Enterobacter</em> 5, included <em>E.cloacae</em> 3, <em>E.xiangfangensis</em> 1,<em>E.asburiae</em> 1,<em> Enterococcus</em> 4included <em>E.casselifarus</em> 2, <em>E.faecium</em> 2. The present study was recorded the isolation and identify of three <em>Aerococcu</em><strong>s</strong> included <em>A. viridans</em> 2, <em>A. urinaeequi</em> 1 which it for our knowledge the first report of such bacteria in HD in Basrah-Iraq. In addition, <em>Lysinibacillus macrolides</em> 3, <em>Halomonas stevensii</em> 3, <em>Acinetobacter radiorsistens</em> 2, whereas <em>Stenotrophomonas rhizophila</em>, <em>Exiguobacterium aestuarii</em>, <em>Shigella sonnei</em>, <em>Klebsiella oxytoca</em> and <em>Margonella morganii</em> each of them 1. Out of 91 isolates fourteen new isolates</p> <p>were recorded as new strains in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the Gene bank DNA sequences. The phylogenetic tree showed affinity between most of the studied isolates. Most of the 91 isolates were resistance to most of the antibiotics such as Ceftazidime and Cefepime more than Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, and Vancomycin. Among the ninety-one isolates that were tested for biofilm production on Congo red agar, (14) isolates gave positive result. &nbsp;However, the results of RAPD-PCR for 26 antibiogram closely related isolates, <em>B. cereus</em> were shown to be genetically close. As for the 4 isolates of <em>P. stutzeri</em> two of four were showed to be closely related, as well as two isolates of <em>S. epidermidis</em> showed genetically identical. &nbsp;The study has recommended that hemodialysis facilities' water supplies should be continuously monitored and that appropriate preventative measures be implemented to reduce the risk of these immunocompromised patients being exposed to polluted water sources.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Exploring Role of Some Physiologic Biomarkers and Serum Parameters in Early Detection and Progression of Asthma in the Iraqi Population. 2022-09-22T11:07:32+00:00 Qabas Abdulridha Abbas Hasnawi Zainab Shnewer Mahdi Al-turfi Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussein Al-Husseini <p>Asthma is a common chronic lung disease in which the airways (bronchi) become inflamed and are abnormally sensitive to certain triggers. Asthma can affect people of all races and ages, and although there is no known cure, there are many ways to control it. The symptoms of asthma include coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. This study was carried out in Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital/ Allergy and Asthma Center and Al-Hakim Hospital/ Chest and Respiratory Diseases Center in Al-Najaf province -Iraq and laboratory of molecular biology in the Department of Biology / Faculty of Science – University of Kufa. The study population was included 70 Asthma and 20 healthy subjects. The estimated incidence of Asthma in the age group 33-51 years with a percentage of 55.71% recorded a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) compared to the rest of the age groups, followed by the age group 15-32 years with a percentage of 24.29% and 52- 70 years with a percentage of 20%. The levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients and the healthy group, where the results of the study showed a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) ESR of the patients (22.77±1.98 mm/hr) compared with the healthy group (14.20±2.86 mm/hr). The cortisol variable recorded a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the patients (6.51±0.62 g/dL) compared with the healthy group (11.82±0.81 g/dL). The results recorded a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) for non-smokers by 84.29% compared with smokers who scored 15.71%. The reason for the prevalence of asthma among smokers is that smoke irritates the airways, thus making them swollen, narrow, and filled with sticky mucus - the same things that happen during an asthma attack, this is why smoking can cause asthma flare-ups (or so-called "attacks"). Oftentimes, they may also be more severe and difficult to control, even with treatment with medication. And the results of the current study indicated that there is a relationship between frequency of blood group (A) and (B) with asthma in patients compared with the group of controls</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Study of Some Gram-Negative Bacteria from Blood Cultures Among Neonatal Iraqi Patients and their Antibiotics Resistance Pattern 2022-09-22T11:10:21+00:00 Kutaiba Sattar Al-Jubury Duraid Kassim Jassim Alshareef Sinaa Mahdi Shakir Maryam Al-Jubury <p>Background and Objective: Neonatal sepsis is a serious condition&nbsp;that can result in death if treatment is delayed. The current study looked at the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria species that are implicated in&nbsp;bloodstream infection (BSI) among&nbsp;neonates admitted at the Medical city,&nbsp;Baghdad, as well as their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: The BacT/ALERT 3D device (Bio-Merieux, France)&nbsp;was used to culture all&nbsp;the blood samples&nbsp;while the API system was used to identify the&nbsp;pathogenic organisms&nbsp;at the species level. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to determine the&nbsp;antibiotic susceptibility of the identified microbes. The study considered a&nbsp;total of 125 blood cultures collected from newborns who were suspected to be born with&nbsp;bloodstream bacteremia. Results: Among the 23 positive cases with&nbsp;Gram-negative bacteria, the rate was&nbsp;higher in the males [15 (65.2%)]&nbsp;compared to the&nbsp;females [8 (34.7%)]. Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be the most identified Gram-negative bacteria in the studied&nbsp;blood samples [10 (43.4%)]. Conclusion: Tigecyclin was the most potent&nbsp;antibiotic against the identified&nbsp;Gram-negative bacteria.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prevalence of Vitamin Supplements Usage Among Private University Students in Iraq 2022-09-22T11:12:39+00:00 Baraa Ghassan Khulood Saadoon Salim Alaa Salih Hasanain Faisal Ghazi <p class="HIVABT">Products that intended to supplement the diet and contain one or more of the following ingredients (mineral, vitamin, herb, or amino acid) is defined as dietary supplements. Most people all over the world have micronutrition deficiency. Vitamin supplements used not only by patients but also by healthy population in all ages and in different regions of the world. Aim of study: This study is conducted to explore the prevalence of vitamin supplements use among students in Al-Bayan university. Also, to identify the reasons to use the supplements, the specific type used, the source of participant’s information about the supplements, and their beliefs. Method: Descriptive cross- sectional study was carried out on (353) medical students in Al-Bayan University during September 2021.Students were asked to participate in this study by using electrical questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of vitamin supplements use among students was (76.5%), multivitamins are the more frequently used (44.8%) followed by vitamin C (22.8%). The main reason for consuming supplements was to enhance their immunity (28.2%) and to maintain good health (23.1%) and majority of them (66.2%) used the supplements according to doctor’s and pharmacist’s advice. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of vitamin supplement use among medical students, there was a relation between gender and vitamin consumption. The most frequent used vitamins were multivitamins. Vitamin supplements are consumed to boost immunity especially during COVID-19 pandemic and to maintain good health.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The effect of Schanginia aegyptica and Urtica dioica powder on the growth of Trigonella foenum seedlings in laboratory sterilized soil. 2022-09-22T12:08:56+00:00 Rasha Abdul Adheem Yaseen Mariam Adnan Ibrahim Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa <p>The study included isolating and diagnosing the fungi accompanying fenugreek seeds <em>Trigonella foenum</em> , most of the species belonged to the genus <em>Aspergillus</em>. The study showed that the use of <em>Schanginia aegyptica</em> and <em>Urtica dioica</em> powder alone for the fungi treatments led to a significant increase in the percentage of germination by 100% and in the length and weight of the seedlings compared to the fungi treatments alone and that adding fungi to the soil treatment had led to reduce the percentage of germination, the most common of which are the two fungi, <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> and <em>Aspergillus terreus</em>, at a rate of 71% for each, and the most affected fungi by adding nettle and sage plant powder is the fungus <em>Pencillium</em>, at a rate of 100%.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Correlation between the Effect of Vitamin D3 and both glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose levels in Iraqi females in the province of Maysan who have uncontrolled type 2 diabetes 2022-09-22T12:14:17+00:00 Ahmed S. Shantah Al_Sadkhan Dawood S. Ali Salah Sh. Alluaibi <p>A total of 130 overweight Iraqi women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the ages of the women (28 to 60) years, were divided into groups, group 5000 IU (65 women) as group&nbsp;A&nbsp;and control (65 women) as group&nbsp;B. were participants from The Specialized Center for Diabetes in Maysan Province and its related areas in the countryside and the city for this double-blind, randomized control trial (Maysan Province, Iraq). A placebo and 5000 IU of D3 daily were given to the participants for four months. Laboratory tests were conducted at baseline and four months to analyze serum levels. After four months of treatment, positive changes in&nbsp;Glycated hemoglobin, and&nbsp;D3&nbsp;levels, There was no statistically meaningful change in&nbsp;Fasting blood glucose. Age and place of residence were not considerably different. According to this study, vitamin D may help type 2 diabetics lower their&nbsp;Glycated hemoglobin.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Identification of fungi associated with storage corn (zea mays) and estimate fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium spp.isolated from these cereals 2022-09-22T12:19:57+00:00 Intisar Al-Sallami Sabah L. Alwan Sami A. Ali <p>Zea mays one of the most important grains produced in Babylon province of Iraq incidences of contaminated seeds with toxigenic fungi were investigated in Babylon maize in 2016 from four Locations (centres (of accumelation corn seeds) namely medhateia, Babil, mussaieb and Locally markets, present study included Identificate the mycoflora of maize in these locations. Mycological analyses showed a predominance of <em>Fusarium</em>sverticilliodes (48.5%), followed by <em>Aspergillus </em>flavus (16.5%), F. proliferatum (6.5%), <em>Penicillium </em>species (5%), <em>Mucor </em>species (1.43%) in maize</p> <p>Sixity strains of <em>Fusarium verticillioides</em> and <em>F. proliferatum</em> isolated from corn collected from fourtht stores in Babylon province, were evaluated for their ability to produce fumonisins B1 (FB1), in Rice culture. Fumonisin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.All tested strains of <em>F.verticillioides</em> and <em>F. proliferatum</em> produced fumonisins within a wide range of concentrations,233-1471ppb,176-823ppb,134-792 ppb and 236-1271ppb FB1. The highest mean concentrations of FB1 were 674,617,548and 340 ppb for location (localy markets,medhateia mussaieband and babil, , respectively) from the four locations of province were observed. Fumonisin mean levels produced byF. <em>Verticillioides </em>and <em>F. proliferatum</em> strains isolated from localy market zone) were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher than the other three location.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Clinical manifestations, comorbidities and blood counts as markers of severity in COVID-19 patients in Babylon Province 2022-09-22T12:22:18+00:00 Ala Hussain Haider Karar Abd Al Redha <p><strong>Objective: </strong>With the pandemic of COVID-19 and increasing number of patients all over the world including our country (Iraq), there is a need to investigate the clinical features, comorbidities and hematological parameters for risk stratification.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study involved 151 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by Polymerase chain reaction. Data were studied regarding the effect of demographic features, comorbidities and blood indices including neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte monocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio on disease severity.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of patients was 37. 8 ± 18. 77, 4 patients were health workers, 79. 5% gave history of contact with infected patients. Most common symptoms were fever 90. 1%, cough 84. 8% and shortness of breath 31. 1%. 78. 8% had normal neutrophil count,71. 6% had normal lymphocyte count, 87. 5% had normal platelet count, 82. 1% had positive results for C-reactive protein. Disease was significantly more severe with increasing age, smoking, presence of shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of smell and more severe in the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, renal disease, heart disease and malignancy) and more severe with decrease platelet counts and increase neutrophil lymphocyte ratio.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most patients give history of contact reflecting wide spread of disease. Neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts are of little value for confirming the disease. More care needs to be taken when deal with patients whom they have increasing age, smoking, shortness of breath, presence of comorbidities and increase neutrophil lymphocyte ratio.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Separation and Spectrophotometric Determination of Zinc ion (II) using a Cloud Point Extraction Technique after complexity with a new organic reagent and its application to different models. 2022-09-22T12:24:23+00:00 Maha. J. Jabbar Fatima A. Wannas <p>A new organic reagent is preparation is [ ABIDAPHD], the reagent was by spectred methed using [FT-IR] and (uv-vis) as anidentification using Spectrophotometric study for ion pair complex of Zn(II) ion extracted into cloud point extraction appeared wave length of maximum absorbance was λ =355 nm, for extracted Zn (II) ion as ion pair association, laboratory produced novel azo The study about Determination the optimum extraction and determination conditions were pH = 9 in the presence of 100 g Zn(II) in 10 mL aqueous solution, 0.5 mL Triton X-114, and heating temperature of 80 c° for 20 minutes, Theromdynamic parameters of CPE for extraction process of the ion –pair association complex in the triton X-114 were also considered ΔH= <strong>+ </strong>0.1048 kJ mol<sup>-1</sup>, ΔG <strong>-</strong> 59.235 kJ mol<sup>-1</sup>, ΔS= <strong>+ </strong>165.8 J mol<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> That referred endothermic reaction, with limit of Detection(LOD=0.72 ppm ) and limit of quantitation (LOQ= 2.4 ppm) , Molar absorptivity (ℇ=70583Lmol<sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup>). stoichiometry shows the ion pair complex extracted was 1:1 (Zn-M) <sup>+2 ;</sup>2Cl_, in addition to electrolyte effect study and spectrophotometric determination of Zn (II) in different samples. The calibration curve linear with correlation cafficient [Zn-ABIDAPHD] <sup>+2</sup>:2Cl<sup>- </sup>of r =0.9948. The proposed methed applied for the proposed method applied for the determination of zinc in vegetables pills.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Value of Bronchial Artery Embolization in Management of Massive Hemoptysis 2022-09-22T12:26:20+00:00 Oday abdulhadi jassim Marwah adel mahdi Israa jarjees rasheed saeed <p>Background: hemoptysis confers a great morbidity on patients' quality of life, and depending on its cause, some patients may be unfit for open thoracotomy surgeries, so interventional radiology here offers a very promising alternative as a less traumatic, more convenient way of treating such patients, although on the expense of relatively high technical demands. Aim of the study: To assess the main findings and possible outcomes of patients suffering from hemoptysis and treated by bronchial artery embolization. Patients and methods: Patients were retrospectively evaluated from September 2015 to January 2017, 14 patients (8 males and 6 females) referred to Babel center of cardiac catheterization &amp; surgery complain from massive hemoptysis. Results: The most common cause of hemoptysis was TB, followed by bronchiectasis. Non-bronchial systemic arteries, which were observed in five (35.71%) patients. Two patients had left internal mammary, two patients had Left thyrocervical trunk, and only one had Left fifth intercostal artery. The most common angiographic vascular patterns were a combination of Neovascularity/ hypervascularity and Hypervascularity/ hypertrophy. There were no complications recorded during or after the embolization, also there was 100% technical success rate. The recurrence rate of hemoptysis during one month was 21.43%, and the same rate was observed after three months. Conclusions: Interventional radiology is an evolving branch in Iraq, and this study showed promising results. There was a high technical success rate associated with relatively high recurrence rate.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Isolation, Molecular Identification, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates 2022-09-22T12:28:47+00:00 Arif Abbas Ghayyib Ibrahim A. Ahmed Hamid K. Ahmed <p>Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive pathogenic bacterium that can infect humans and animals. It has a high ability to develop resistance to several different antibiotics. In this study, 129 clinical specimens were collected from patients in three different hospitals in Baghdad during the period from October 13, 2020, to January 26, 2021. From all of these specimens, only 45 isolates showed cultural and biochemical characteristics that are similar to <em>S. aureus</em>. The identity of these isolates was further confirmed using specific primers for the <em>S. aureus</em> nuc gene. In addition, the susceptibility of these isolates to eleven virous antibiotics was studied. The results revealed that all <em>S. aureus</em> isolates demonstrated high resistance to cefoxitin, penicillin, and ceftazidime. On the other hand, the isolates showed virous susceptibility to the rest of the eight antibiotics. We also found that there were no antibiotics tested in this study that were able to kill all <em>S. aureus</em> isolates, and all isolates tested in this study were classified as MRSA.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Immunogentic Detection of Human Herpes Virus-6B, IL4and TNF-α in Male Patients Suffering from Infertility Disorders 2022-09-22T12:31:31+00:00 Zeena Kareem Gihad Musa Nima Mezher <p>The study aims to investigate HHV6-B, IL4 and TNF-α in infertility male patients. To achieve this goal, 200 samples (blood and semen to each patient) were collected from infertility center in ALSadr hospital and outside laboratory in Najaf Governorate (160 patients and 40 from normal person as control group). Patients were married and infertile. Samples were collected from patients during the period from 1 of December 2020 to 15 December 2021.</p> <p>Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the occurrence of HHV6-B DNA among infertility male patients. Molecular assay results of this study revealed the presence of HHV6-B was 17 (10.63%) in infertility male patients. HHV6-B DNA not detected in seminal fluid of healthy persons.</p> <p>The present study has detected that single nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in IL-4 -590 C/T genotype frequency distribution in infertility male patients. The genotypes relative frequency in patients were as follow: CC (33.75%), CT (43.75%) and TT (22.5%) among them. C allele is higher frequency (65.32%) in patients than T allele (34.67%) in which there was no significant difference from statistical perspective (<em>P value</em> = 0.004) among infertility male patients and control group. The genotypes relative frequency in HHV-6B infections was: CC (29.41%), CT (41.17%) and TT (29.41%). There was no significant difference (<em>P value </em>= 0.849) among patients.</p> <p>Also, in this study has detected that single nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in TNF-α -308 G/A genotype frequency distribution in infertility male patients. The genotypes relative frequency in patients were as follow: GG (26.25%), GA (45.63%) and AA (28.13%) among them. G allele is higher frequency (56.2%) in patients than A allele (43.8%) in which there was no significant difference from statistical perspective (<em>P value</em> = 0.212) among infertility male patients and control group. The genotypes relative frequency in HHV-6B infections was: GG (23.53%), GA (52.94%) and AA (23.53%). There was no significant difference (<em>P value </em>= 0.9739) among patients.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia herba alba leaves on the activitsy of the liver in White Rats 2022-09-22T12:33:29+00:00 Shaima Abid Eltaif Abid Ahmad Erdiny Mostafa Ali Abd Alrahman <p>This study was carried out at the University of Tikrit /School of Education for women/Department of Life Sciences for the period from 20/9/2020 to 20/12/2020, for the purpose of studying the impact of doping on the of water extraction <em>Artemisia herba</em> leaves in some vital blood indicators and some hormones in male white rats. This study involved bringing the <em>Artimisia herba</em> from the Zagdan Valley of the Anbar Desert, after which it was dried, the leaf blade was pulled, the leaf residue was well milled, and then 50 g of powder was weighed and placed in 1 liter.</p> <p>The effect of this extract on male egg rats was studied by measuring some of the liver's chemological criteria by measuring ALT, AST and Alkaline phosphatasein the blood. It was divided into three groups, each containing 10 rats, ranging in age from 2-3 months, and at a weight of 150- 200 g, the first group was given 1ml once a day. (a.m.), and the second group was injected twice a day (every 12 hours). The third group was injected three times a day (every 8 hours). In addition to the control group, the standards were measured every 14 days.</p> <p>The two doses were ethically different and more influential than the three doses and the single dose in the rat totals, followed in terms of the three doses, then the single dose and the values rose the most in control. The results of the experimentation were as follows:</p> <p>The highest value for AST was in the 31mg/dl doses on the 42nd and 56th day, the highest value for ALT was in the 37mg/dl doses on the 28th day, and the base phosphatase enzyme recorded the highest value in the 68mg/dl doses on the 42nd and 56th day.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The role of serum IL-10 & IFNγ among women with infertility 2022-09-22T12:35:56+00:00 Khalid Hassan Mazel Maysaloon A.AL-Sadoon Maysoon Sharif Flafil <p>Infertility is one of the most important disorders in gynecology<strong>,</strong> the immune system can play a role in causing infertility in some couples. Various subsets of T cells secrete different cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)- γ which boost cell-mediated immunity. This study was aimed to assess serum level of IFNγ and IL-10, in women with infertility resulting from ovarian dysfunction and in normal matched control group. Blood samples were obtained from 75 infertile women and from 75 fertile as a control group. The serum level of IL-10 was decrease while IFN- γ evaluated using ELISA test. These finding showed that Pro&amp; anti-inflammatory cytokines might be playing a role as a biomarker for female infertility. Additionally, it might be considered as a guide for treatment response.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Characterization and assessment of antioxidant activity of some phenolic extracts of ginseng roots (Panax ginseng) 2022-09-23T12:12:59+00:00 Lana A. Mansor Alaa A. Ali Alaa H. Al-Moula Noorhan A. Chelebi Ayoub A. Bazzaz <p>Despite of wide use of ginseng products in customary medication over hundreds of years, yet, the clinical medication is inconclusive with regards to its clinical credence nor is it supported by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a prescriptive medication. Ongoing researches showed that ginseng products might be contaminated with poisonous metals or other filler mixtures, and its excessive use might contribute to some unexpected side effects or untoward interaction with prescriptive medication. Phenolic compounds (phenols and flavonoids) are extracted from the roots of Chinese ginseng plant (<em>Panax ginseng</em>) using organic solvents i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol. Their amounts, efficacy for binding the ferrous ion, antioxidant activity in reducing power, and their ability to bind iron over the rest of the extracts have demonstrated the elevated 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, ferrous ion chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Using gas chromatography-absorption spectroscopy (GC-AS) technique, a few phenolic compounds were diagnosed e.g., 9, 10-Secocholesta-5; 7,10(19)-triene-3; 25, 26-triol, [3-beta, 5Z, 7E]; the [7R, 10R]-1,5-Endoperoxy-2-hydroper oxycarota-1,4-dien-14-al) to have the highest concentration among 10 other diagnosed compounds. The impact of antioxidant activity of a few phenolic compounds extracted from ginseng roots (<em>P. ginseng</em>) is attributed to the potency of ginseng product in inhibiting the oxidative activities of radicals in protecting the cell membrane components from damage. Further biochemical assessment are required to purify these extracts and to assess their pharmacological and therapeutic applications.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Relation of Luteinizing hormone level in females escorted by multiple cysts on ovarian condition with some parameters in AL-Najaf city 2022-09-23T12:21:52+00:00 Zahraa Mohammed Fakheir AL-Nafakh Nooralhuda Ghanem AL-Fatlawi Samah Amer Hammood Sabreen Ghanem Al-Fatlawi Almsaid Hayder <p>Multiple cysts on ovarian condition it is one of the generality hormonal troubles in adult females of generative prong give rise to unequal menstrual peroid, immoderate in frame or in facial hair, termination as well as sterility. Concerning 80% of adult female accompanied by multiple cysts on ovarian endure from menstrual dysfunction (oligo- menorrhea, an abnormal absence of menstruation) during several mark in their sexual life and in this study (regular and irregular menstrual cycle). Regular menstrual cycle (middle extent of the menstrual cycle amidst 22 and 41 days. Either none or extreme of 1 menstrual peroids with length&lt;22 or&gt;41 days through the former year. Irregular cycle (middle extent of the menstrual cycle admist 22 and 41 days. Two or more menstrual peroids with length&lt;22 or&gt;41 days through the former year. Multiple cysts on ovarian condition is a sex hormone disorders that can influence on marital satisfaction of affected married women. The objectives of this study is assessing the levels of LH hormone according to menstrual cycle state, marital state and height. method :37adult female were diagnosed with multiple cysts on ovarian condition and19 control women recruited from Abbas AL-Nafakh laboratory in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city during the period from4\1\2021to9\3\2021. Patients with multiple cysts on ovarian condition were divided into groups according to menstrual cycle (regular and irregular group), marital state (married and unmarried) and height. Results<strong>: </strong>the results of this study revealed a significant increase (P&lt;0. 05) in LH hormone level in adult female with multiple cysts on ovarian condition in comparing with control group. This treatise also showed a significant difference (P&lt;0. 05) in LH hormone level between regular and irregular group in women with multiple cysts on ovarian condition. Also, in this treatis this results also suggest no significant variances (P&gt;0. 05) between married group and unmarried group in adult female with multiple cysts on ovarian condition and also there no significant variances (P&gt;0. 05) between wedded and unwed group in control women, while it was found a significant variances (P&lt;0. 05) in wedded group between patients and control women and also it was found a significant difference (P&lt;0. 05) in unmarried group between patients and control women. Finally the present study have been shown positive correlation (P&lt;0. 05) between LH hormone level and height in women with multiple cysts on ovarian condition.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder among Iraqi Undergraduate Students 2022-09-23T12:25:20+00:00 Nashwan Nadhim Hasan Hayder Ameer Jabor Omed Hamarasheed Mehammed-Ameen <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate Iraqi students to determine their online and offline internet games from June 2020 to October 2021 utilizing Arabic version of (IGD-20 Test) through google form and 886 students responded from different Iraqi universities. The data analysis based on the use of SPSS version 26. The result indicated that 5.6% of the total sample suffers from IGD. The findings illustrated significant statistical differences among IGD students with three different variables: gender at P-value 0.000, age at P-value 0.016, and economic status at P-value 0.002. The study concluded that about one out of 20 Iraqi undergraduate students suffer from IGD, and male students are affected by IGD about twice as female students. Gender, age and economic status have significant differences with IGD.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Preparation and Characterization of New Azo-Chalcone Mixed with Imidazole Ligand Coordinated with Some Chelate Complexes and Study Antitumor Activity 2022-09-23T12:33:10+00:00 Shownm Hasan Baper Dr. Mithaq Saeed Mohammed <p>A new series of some transition metal complexes were prepared from reaction mix ligands of new azo-chalcone with imidazole and Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (II) ions. New azo-chalcone prepared by two steps from reacted 4-bromo benzaldehyde with 4-aminoacetophenone to obtain chalcone after that reacted with paracetamol to result new azo-chalcone. The results show that the mole ratio (metal - ligand) is (1:2:2) for all the complexes under study. The ligand characterized by 1HNMR, mass spectrum and its complexes were characterized by microanalysis of the elements, UV-vis, FTIR, molar conduction and magnetic moment. Azo- chalcone coordinated via (N) atom of azo group and (O) atom of OH group of paracetamol with metal ions. Based on the obtained results, an octahedral geometry was proposed for all chelate complexes. The effect of the biological examination of Cd (II) complex was tested antitumor Breast cancer cells and compared with healthy cells to show the possibility of using these compounds in a therapeutic manner.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Antitumor Activity of Hesperidin Extracted from Citrus Limon 2022-09-23T12:35:10+00:00 Abeer M. Jabbar Ruqaya M. Ibrahim Asmaa A. Hussein <p>Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled development and spread of abnormal cells and may be lead to death. Although the exact cause of most cancers is not well understood but it has recognized that the genetic aspect contributes to 5 to 10% of cancers. Other reasons Included poor diets, sure infections, lack of bodily activity, obesity, smokers, and pollution. Phytochemical analysis for plant extract were possessed flavonoids with different contents of 341.66±83.33 mg/ml for of Citrus limon. The reductive ability was more effective than trolox observrd the all concentrations in 0.64 mg/ml recorded the highest reductive ability in C. limon was 0.82±0.02 mg/ml. Also, the radical scavenging (DPPH) was significantly more effective in all concenteration than vitamin C as positive control, the concentrations 0.500 mg/ml represented the highest DPPH in Citrus limon was 97.53±1.43mg/ml. The flavonoid purified from Citrus limon by HPLC, as a possible induction of apoptosis that initiated by hesperidin treated AMJ13 cells was assessed by acridine orange- propidium iodide dual fluorescent staining. The results revealed that hesperidin induced cell death through apoptosis which detected by acridine orange-propidium iodide dual fluorescent staining assay, further confirmed its anticancer effects, suggesting potential applications of hesperidin and its derivatives as anticancer therapy.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Isolation Gram Positive Bacteria from Deep Carious Lesion Iraq-Baghdad. 2022-09-23T12:37:33+00:00 Ayashi Ali Mais E. Ahmed <p class="HIVABT"><em>Streptococcus mutans</em> is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. The ecological plaque according with the hypothesis and caries is the changes consequence in the natural dental plaque microflora. 100 specimens were according to be positive bacterial isolates by using Mitis-Salivarius agar medium. 98% for total isolates were considered <em>Streptococcus </em>and specially <em>S. mutans </em>identification depending on biochemical test and Vitech 2 system.</p> <p class="HIVABT"><span style="color: black;">The common species strain according to (eight strains) including <em>Bacillus </em>sp., <em>Staphylococcus sp., </em></span><em>Enterococcus. Faaecalis<span style="color: black;">, Streptococcus sp, </span></em><span style="color: black;">aerobic bacteria and <em>Lactobacillus fermentum,</em></span></p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Outcome of COVID-19 Infection in Vaccinated Patients in Kirkuk City 2022-09-23T12:39:34+00:00 Bilal Jamal Kamal Mohammed Ali Khalaf <p>At 2019 an epidemic of viral infection was declared by the WHO, and the virus causing this epidemic was identified and known as (SARS-CoV-2) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. To assess the outcome and severity of infection with COVID-19 virus after been vaccinated with different types of Covid-19 vaccines though various clinical and lab investigations. One thousand patients infected with covid-19 was collected from Azadi teaching hospital and Shifa-14 hospital at Kirkuk city; from 1<sup>st</sup> August to 31<sup>st</sup> January 2022, all of them were vaccinated by two doses, 400 patients with Sinopharm vaccine, 400 with Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine and 200 with AstraZeneca vaccine. Laboratory investigations like CBC, CRP, serum ferritin, serum LDH and d-dimer, chest CT were done for the symptomatic patients to assess their severity. The study found that from 400 COVID-19 patients who were vaccinated with two doses of Sinopharm vaccine, 200 patients had just mild symptoms, 125 had moderate symptoms, 75 patients complained from severe symptoms requiring hospital admission and 10 of them had passed. 400 patients were vaccinated with two doses of Pfizer vaccine, 300 patients had just mild symptoms, 70 patients moderate and 30 patients complained from severe illness required hospital admission and 3 patients passed. 200 patients were vaccinated with two doses of AstraZeneca vaccine, 120 patients had just mild symptoms, 60 patients moderate and 20 patients complained from severe illness required hospital admission and 5 patients passed. It was concluded that majority of vaccinated individuals suffered just from mild symptoms.</p> <p>The Aim of the study is to assess the outcome of COVID-19 infection in vaccinated patients (Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and Biotech-Pfizer vaccine) in Kirkuk city, the mortality, mild, moderate and severe cases.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Genotype Study of L1 Subclass B3 Metallo Beta Lactamase Gene Among Multidrug Resistance Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Isolated from Different Infection in AL- Najaf Province. 2022-09-23T12:41:44+00:00 Enas Jalil Baqer Almayali Abbas Shaker AL-muhana <p><em>Stenotrophomonas</em> <em>maltophilia</em> can be considered a “newly emerging pathogen of concern” that is being isolated more frequently. It is also recognized as one of the underestimated important multi-drug resistant organisms in hospitals by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results were as follows: 42 isolates of <em>S. maltophilia</em> and 80 isolates of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> out of 230 isolates were Gram-negative bacteria and non-lactose fermenter after growing on MacConkey agar.</p> <p>The isolates were tested for susceptibility to 11 antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method to S. maltophilia. Overall, the resistant rate for β-lactams/ β-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic including ticarcillin/clavulanate was (71.4%). The rates of resistance to the ceftazidime (47.7%), cefepime (46.2%), doxycycline (57.1%), minocycline (59.5%), ciprofloxacin (76.1%), levofloxacin (78.5%), norfloxacin (83.3%), moxifloxacin (59.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.5 %), chloramphenicol (35.7 %).</p> <p>As for the molecular study for the detection of L1 subclass B3 Metallo-beta-lactamase genes of <em>Stenotrophomonas</em> <em>maltophilia</em> bacteria, it was as follows (80.9%).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A comparative study for calculating the ratios of the red and White muscle fibers in Luciobarbus xanthopterus (Heckel,1843) and Leuciscus vorax (Heckel,1843) In Karbala governorate. 2022-09-23T12:43:38+00:00 Rasha S.A. AL- Tamimi Mohammed W.H. AL-muhanna Batool A. Hussein <p>The current study included a comparative study related to the life of fish to choose the best species for fish farming, And that is by knowing their motor activity, which is represented by calculating the ratios of red and white muscles in two types of bony fish that belong to the cyprinidae, namely: <em>Luciobarbus xanthopterus </em>(Heckel,1843) and <em>Leuciscus vorax</em> (Heckel,1843) The results of the current study showed a clear difference in the ratios of red and white muscle fibers within the studied length groups and in different areas of the body (R1,R2) Within the same species, the rates of white muscle fibers in the anterior region (R1) were more than the rates of red muscle fibers, where the values of their averages in <em>L</em>. <em>xanthopterus</em> ranged between (12.22-18.32 %), while their average values were (13.37- 17.65 %) in <em>L. vorax</em>, that is, the proportions of red muscle fibers increase towards the caudal peduncle of the fish's body because of its great role in the movement and swimming so the fish of the current study were considered among the group of Sprinter fishes because they contain a high percentage of white muscles of fish.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Comparative Study for Calculating the Diameters of the Red and White Muscle Fibers in Luciobarbus Xanthopterus (Heckel,1843) And Leuciscus Vorax (Heckel,1843) In Karbala Governorate. 2022-09-23T13:09:05+00:00 Rasha S.A. AL-Tamimi Mohammed W.H. AL-muhanna Batool A. Hussein <p>The current study included a study related to the life of fish as a comparative study to choose the best species for fish farming, which is to calculate some of the histological characteristics of skeletal muscles red and white by calculating the diameters of muscle fibers of both types red and white in two different regions of the body (R1 and R2) There are two types of bony river fish in the Shatt al-Hindi waters with different dietary habits, namely : <em>Luciobarbus xanthopterus</em> (Heckel,1843) and <em>Leuciscus vorax</em> (Heckel,1843),which belong to the cyprinidae,The results of the phenotypic histological examination of the muscle tissue showed that the diameters of the red muscle fibers were of small sizes and almost identical in shape where the values of their averages in <em>L</em> . <em>xanthopterus</em> ranged between (42.45 -46.38 micron) while their rates were between (31.24 – 46.41micron) in <em>L. vorax,</em>While the diameters of the white muscle fibers were large and varied and irregular in mosaic shap If the values of the averages of their diameters ranged in <em>L</em> . <em>xanthopterus</em> between (69.77 – 73.87 micron) while their average values were (57.25 – 69.32 micron) in the <em>L. vorax</em> This means a clear difference in the values of the average values of the diameters of red and white muscle fibers in the regions of the body studied (R1, R2) in both types,Meaning that the values of the rates of the diameters of the red and white muscle fibers decrease towards the back (caudal peduncle) for its importance associated with the swimming of both types of fish .</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 In Vitro Antibiotic-Sensitivity of Uro-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC) Amongst Outpatient with Community-Acquired UTIs. A CrossSectional Study from Babylon Province. 2022-09-23T13:12:29+00:00 Maysaloon Adnan Abdul Razza Manal Naseh Ahmed Hamdan <p>Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacteriological infection that causes a significant illness and health burden all over the world. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is Gramnegative bacteria that has many serotypes. Only a limited serotype is in charge of infections, namely uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a big problem of great concern globally.&nbsp; The study aimed to evaluate the AR of UPEC among outpatient with community-acquired UTIs from Babylon Materials and methods: This study was a cross-sectional in vitro study carried out to evaluate the AR of UPEC among outpatient with community-acquired UTI. A total number of 247 outpatients (193 male) aging 41±3.5years, had been chosen randomly. The clinical presentation and the urinary signs and symptoms had recorded, and urine samples had collected for urinalysis and culture/sensitivity tests.&nbsp; Results: Out of the 247 patients studied, 180 undergo UCs. Those who have exhibited to have culturepositive urine samples were 98 patients. Out of the positive samples, 56-samples were positive for UPEC. Accordingly, the prevalence of UPEC culture-positive samples were 57.1% for E. coli. The remaining 42.9% of the total 89-samples, had revealed other types of bacteria. The sensitivity tests exposed that the E. coli resisting ABs like Nitrofurantoin, Ceftazidime, and Ceftriaxone, ten-times more than other ABs like Amikacin, Ampicillin, and Imipenem. Conclusions: Among community-acquired patients with UTIs, UPEC signifies the commonest uropathogens isolated from urinary isolates. The AR of UPEC had steadily increased for ABs that frequently prescribed. Accordingly, the familiarity of AR among uropathogens is crucial to deliver proper cost-effective treatment</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Study on Pregnant Mothers’ Knowledge and Self-Management Toward Prenatal Care Services in Baghdad City 2022-09-23T13:14:35+00:00 Buthainah Basheer Salih Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel <p class="HIVABT">Background- Prenatal care services refers to activities a pregnant woman receives during pregnancy to ensure a healthy outcome for herself and her newborn. However, only limited studies have so far been done to assess the pregnant mothers’ knowledge and self-management toward prenatal care services in the Baghdad City.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Objective- This study is aimed at assessing the pregnant mothers’ knowledge and self-management toward prenatal care services attending primary health care facilities in Baghdad City.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Methodology- A descriptive cross-sectional study design was utilized, (206) pregnant women taking prenatal care services at selected three primary health care centers of Baghdad City were the study population for the period from 5 / January / 2020 to 15 / October / 2020. A structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The data were collected through face to face interview technique and by using questionnaire format. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Results- A total of two hundred and six (206) pregnant women participated in the study with a response rate of (100%). Results showed that nearly half of pregnant mothers ages were between (18-25) years, (46.6%) were illiterate, (49.5%) from moderate socioeconomic status. Half of pregnant mothers had less than five children, (43.7%) of husbands were smokers, (47.6%) of mothers provided with health education regarding prenatal care services. The results indicated that there is statistically significant of mother’s knowledge with their socio-economic status, age, and their occupational status and sources of information while no statistically significant in regard to number of living children, smoking of husbands and health education regarding prenatal care services during antenatal period. Majority of pregnant mothers (85.4%) has no any information about oral hygiene and dental care during pregnancy, while in relation to self- management of mothers, results showed they were poorly managed especially toward taking medication without doctor prescription, performing blood test prior to the pregnancy and the need to receive tetanus toxoid vaccine during prenatal period.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Conclusions- The Overall Knowledge of pregnant women toward prenatal care services was low.<span class="NormalWebChar"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;"> Results concluded that pregnant mothers had inadequate knowledge on specific aspects of prenatal care services,</span></span> while the self- management of mothers were poor<span class="NormalWebChar"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;"> especially toward </span></span>taking medication without doctor prescription, performing blood test prior to the pregnancy and the need to receive tetanus toxoid vaccine during prenatal period.</p> <p class="HIVABT">Recommendations- Encouraging maternal education, building the capacity of healthcare providers, making basic infrastructures available at primary health care facilities could improve the knowledge and self-management of pregnant mothers. In addition, the study recommended the need for more health education specifically concerning the benefits of colostrum, importance of breastfeeding, performing blood test prior to the pregnancy and receiving tetanus vaccine during prenatal period.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Deep Breathing and Bronchial Postural Drainage Exercises and the Relationship with Covid-19 Patients 2022-09-23T13:16:40+00:00 Buthainah Basheer Salih Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel <p>Background: COVID-19 virus can have a significant impact on an individual’s health and ability to exercise. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has noted 11 main COVID-19 symptoms: fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, the new loss of sensation or smell, sore throat, congestion, or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. Experts have begun to look at the positive effects of deep breathing exercises on these respiratory issues among during and post-COVID-19 individuals. Worldwide physical therapy, deep breathing and coughing exercises services are given in conjunction with medical treatment</p> <p>Objectives: The study aimed to find the relationship of deep breathing and bronchial postural drainage for patients with coronavirus and find out the relationship between this exercises and patients demographic and personal data such as age, gender, and educational level</p> <p>Methodology: A descriptive (cross-sectional) study design was conducted in Baghdad city hospitals, starting from 1<sup>st</sup> of October to the end of October 2020. Non- probability (purposive) sample of 100 patients have coronavirus. The data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical analysis frequency, &amp; percentages, and inferential statistical analysis, chi-square, are used.</p> <p>Results: More than half of the studied sample (59%) were within (20-39) years old and (52%) of them were male. both variables have a significant association with deep breathing and bronchial postural drainage exercises but in regard to their educational level, no significant association was found and most of patients have commonly symptoms of Coid-19 and are highly significant association with that exercises, while most of patient have emergency warning signs of Coid-19,Inability to wake or stay awake and bluish lips or face are significantly association with it and most of patients under study have good healthy condition after doing exercise but it has no significant association with that exercises.</p> <p>Recommendations: The researchers recommended training the patients on deep breathing and bronchial postural drainage exercises in the Ministry of Health hospitals and displaying for them the updating information through different social media locations to put the affected patients on the right ways for having better health</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Biofilm Formation and Molecular Analysis of Icaabcd Genes Among Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated from Different Clinical Sources 2022-09-23T13:18:50+00:00 Farah Badri Abd Dhafar Najim Al-Ugaili Mohsen Hashim Risan <p class="HIVABT"><em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>is a major hospital and community pathogen having the aptitude to cause a wide variety of infections in human. The biofilm production is an important phenomenon by bacteria such as <em>S. aureus</em> that contribute to the multiple drug resistance. Moreover, biofilm formation by multidrug-resistant <em>S. aureus</em> causes evading from immune responses and is recognized as one factor contributing to chronic or persistent infections. It was demonstrated that the ica-encoded genes lead to the biosynthesis of polysaccharide adhesion (PIA) molecules, and may be involved in the accumulation phase of biofilm formation. Different studies have shown the decisive role of the ica gene as virulence factors in <em>staphylococcal</em> infections. This study was carried out to detect biofilm formation and presence of several related genes among multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of <em>S. aureus</em>. One hundred and fifty different clinical samples were collected from various clinical sources and healthcare workers in Baghdad City. Isolates were identified by conventional methods (cultural, microscopic and biochemical tests) in addition to the identification by the VITEK® 2 Compact and fifty isolates were recorded as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for the isolates were tested against twelve antibiotics that belonged to different classes using disc diffusion method (Beta-lactam, lincosamide, macrolides, aminoglycoside, quinolones, ansamycins, tetracyclines, glycopeptides). The <em>S. aureus</em> isolates that showed multi-drug resistance against the tested antibiotics were further tested for their ability to produce biofilm using micro-titer plate methods. Sixteen isolates were resistant to more than six antibiotics and recorded as strong and moderate biofilm producers; these isolates were further tested using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the presence of icaABCD genes using specific primers. The results revealed that all the tested S. aureus isolates were identified to have these genes.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Clinical Significance of Tumor Biomarker (PSA) In The Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Its Correlation with The Stage of the Disease 2022-09-23T13:21:13+00:00 Hanaa S. Khadhum Azhar A. Ameen Mahdi M. Thuwaini <p>Prostate cancer is the most frequently type of cancer which leading death in male, Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is possibly the most commonly utilized tumor marker for prostatic carcinoma screening. The present study was conducted to assess the diagnostic efficiency of Serum PSA in identifying of prostate cancer as compared to tissue biopsy. The study was conducted in the private clinics in Basra city All of the patients in this study have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The study was carried out from February 2018 to February 2019.In total, 49 patients took part in the trial, with 30 normal participants serving as controls. The results of the current study revealed that the mean age of prostate cancer patients was 59.68±9.04 years and that of control subjects was 52.50± 6.27 years (differences were insignificant). PSA of the patients with prostate cancer was significantly more than that of control (11.04±1.73 VS 7.3±0.87 ng/ml, P&lt; 0.01 t- test). The percent of patients with prostate cancer with overweight was significantly more than that recorded in normal subjects (12.24 VS 10.00% %, P&lt; 0.01 Chi square). The percent of obese among patients with prostate cancer was also more than that noted in control group (12.24 VS 3.33%, P&lt; 0.05 Chi square). Furthermore, the percent of smokers among patients with prostate cancer (69.38%) was more than that in healthy subject (20.00%) (P&lt; 0.01 Chi square). When compared to a healthy (control), the patients with prostate cancer showed significant elevation of serum cholesterol (174± 12.01 VS 286±27.23 mg/dl, P &lt; 0.01 t-test), LDLc (99.4±8.5 119± 7.4VS mg/dl, P &lt; 0.01 t-test) and triglycerides (116±13.7 VS 116±13.7, P &lt; 0.05 t-test). While the serum level of HDLc was significantly decreased in prostate cancer patients compared to healthy (controls) (38.8±1.04 VS 44.3±3.7, P &lt; 0.05 t-test. Our data was statistically analyzed, and the results showed there was no correlation between serum PSA and the stage of prostatic cancer. However, of the total patients, 24.49% appeared with PCa, T1, 20.41% with PCa, T2, 14.29% with PCa, T3, 24.49% with PCa, T4 and 16.32% with PCa, T5. Prostate cancer was positively correlated with BMI, lipid profile and smoking, while no correlation was recorded between PSA and the stage of the disease.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Efficacy of Tocilizumab among Severe COVID-19 patients 2022-09-23T13:23:35+00:00 Asma A. Swadi Radhi Farhod Shlash Huda Jabbar Dibby Sinaa Abdul Amir Kadhim Shoroq mohammed Abas <p class="HIVABT"><strong>Background: </strong>Multiple diseases of inflammatory pathology have been successfully managed using the anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody. In addition, this drug has been shown to improve the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia all over the world. Nevertheless, several reports have raised the issue of conflicting results with respects to outcomes of patients with severe cases of COVID-19 receiving tocilizumab form of treatment.<strong> Aim of the study: </strong>The current study was planned and conducted to assess the outcomes of patients receiving tocilizumab in addition to standard COVID-19 treatment in comparison with group of patients receiving only standard form of treatment.<strong> Patients and methods: </strong>The current interventional study was conducted in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq starting from June the 15<sup>th</sup> 2021 through February 2022. The study included 100 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit in the hospital because of severe presentation attributed to COVID-19 pneumonia. The age range of those patients was from 18 to 80 years and they were randomly allocated into two groups, the first group (<em>n</em> = 50) received standard treatment beside tocilizumab whereas, the second group (<em>n</em> = 50) received only standard protocol (steroid, oxygen and antimicrobials).<strong> Results: </strong>There was no significant difference in mean age between group A (tocilizumab) and group B (standard treatment), 47.29 ±7.09 years versus 48.01 ±9.81 years, respectively (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). There was also no significant variation in proportions of males and females between group A and group B, 30 (60.0 %) males and 20 (40.0 %) females versus 27 (54.0 %) males and 23 (46.0 %) females, respectively (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). There was also no significant difference in rates of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and asthma between group A and group B (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). There was no significant difference in rate of death between group A and group B, 20 (40.0 %) versus 19 (38.0 %), respectively (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05).<strong> Conclusion: </strong>In spite of the safety of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19, it is not efficient in reducing mortality rate in comparison with standard treatment protocol.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Immunological Study for Shingle Virus Infection Patients 2022-09-23T13:26:24+00:00 Ayam M. Salih <p class="HIVABT">herpes zoster is a disease occur by reinfection of varicella–zoster virus cause infection that occure in neuron.cellular immune response decrease in elderly and immucompromissed patients this lead to activation the virus again and cause VZV. Whereas herpes zoster is usually no sever in person with no other disease,elderly patients are predispose for complications. This research revel the level of interleukin profile interleukins (23, 21, 4, and 12), for cell mediate immunity and humoral immune response in patients with herpes zoster.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella Pneumonae Isolates from Clinical Samples 2022-09-23T13:27:59+00:00 Alaa Hamza Jaber Al-Jelehawy Anwar Salih Saihood <p><strong>The susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates toward 22 antibiotics kind where examined by technique of disk diffusion. The result reported that 63 (98.44%) isolates of K. pneumoniae were cefotaxime resistant, 62 (96.88%) isolates were resistant to both ampicillin and amoxclave, 59 (92.19%) isolates were resistant to cefepime, 57 (89.06%) isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, 52 (81.25%) and 54 (84.38%) were ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone resistant respectively.</strong> Present result demonstrated that 19 (29.69%) and 32 (50%) isolates of K. pneumoniae were imipenem and meropenem resistant respectively, 11 (17.19%), 14 (21.88%) and 43 (67.19%) isolates were norfloxxacin resistant, levofloxcacin and ciprofloxacin respectively. This study explained that 7 (10.94%), 19 (29.69%) and 30 (46.88) isolates were amikacin resistance, tobramycin and kanamycin respectively, 51 (79.69%) and 5 (89.06%) isolates were resistant to sulphonamide and trimethoprim respectively.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Effect of Bio-Fertilizer, Magnetized Water and Soil Coverage on the Ratio of NPK Elements in The Leaves, Microbial Community and Measure the Basal Phosphatase Enzyme in The Maize Soil 2022-09-23T13:30:39+00:00 Reem Munthir Taha Abbas Fadhil Ali <p>A factorial experiment was carried out according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with the split-split-plot arrangement with three replications during the season of 2020 to study the effect of three factors are the irrigation (non- magnetized water, magnetized water), the coverage (non-coverage soil and coverage soil), Bio and chemical fertilizers on NPK elements percentage in leaves, microbial community and measure the basal phosphatase enzyme in the maize soil. The results showed the interaction between magnetized water and the soil coverage and bio-fertilizer + a half dose of phosphate fertilizer led to significantly increased in the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the leaves 1.99 % and 0.46% respectively, and in the bacteria and fungi numbers in the soil, where recorded the highest value 15.43 and 9.23 cfu g-<sup>1</sup> dry soil respectively after 45 days, and it gave a significant increase in the basal phosphatase enzyme, where recorded the highest value 96.62 and 103.12 IU/L after 45 and 60 days respectively.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Removal of Pollution with Dye Reactive Yellow 145 From Waste Water Using Novel Nano Poly TGM: As A Model of Health Study 2022-09-24T12:23:56+00:00 Ali Fadhil A. Al-Ameri Mohammad N. Al-Baiati <p class="HIVABT">Poly (Terphthalic Acid-Co-Glycerol-G-Maleic anhydride) was synthesized by esterification process, by dissolution method. Preparation of a linear co-polymer as a first step from the reaction of Terphthalic acid with glycerol; Then an amount of Maleic anhydride was added to the resulting linear co-polymer reaction to get the Novel Nano Poly TGM. This nano co-polymer was characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average particle height was equal to 8.3 nm. The impact of three different temperatures (298, 308, and 318 K) and four different concentrations (1, 3, 5 and 7 ppm) of nano co-polymer has been studied and it is clear that they play a critical part in the adsorption process, and the experimental results showed that the adsorption of dyes (Reactive Yellow 145) on the surface of this nanopolymer diminishes as the temperature rises, indicating that it is an exothermic process. It was also discovered that the efficient nanocopolymer completed the effective bile removal from aqueous solution.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Removal of Pollution with Dye Reactive Yellow 145 From Waste Water Using Novel Nano Poly TGM: As A Model of Health Study 2022-09-24T12:28:29+00:00 Ali Fadhil A. Al-Ameri Mohammad N. Al-Baiati <p class="HIVABT">Poly (Terphthalic Acid-Co-Glycerol-G-Maleic anhydride) was synthesized by esterification process, by dissolution method. Preparation of a linear co-polymer as a first step from the reaction of Terphthalic acid with glycerol; Then an amount of Maleic anhydride was added to the resulting linear co-polymer reaction to get the Novel Nano Poly TGM. This nano co-polymer was characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average particle height was equal to 8.3 nm. The impact of three different temperatures (298, 308, and 318 K) and four different concentrations (1, 3, 5 and 7 ppm) of nano co-polymer has been studied and it is clear that they play a critical part in the adsorption process, and the experimental results showed that the adsorption of dyes (Reactive Yellow 145) on the surface of this nanopolymer diminishes as the temperature rises, indicating that it is an exothermic process. It was also discovered that the efficient nanocopolymer completed the effective bile removal from aqueous solution.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Effect of Acetate and Phosphorous Spraying on Some Vegetative and Chemical Growth Characteristics of Ocimum Basilicum Vare Viride 2022-09-24T12:31:01+00:00 Saleh Khudhair Abbas Saadoun Abdul-Hadi Al-Ajeel <p class="HIVABT">The experiment was carried out in a plastic house built for this purpose in the village of Sayed Hussein, affiliated to Al-Rifai district, north of Dhi Qar governorate for the agricultural season 2021. For the purpose of studying the effect of spraying acetate and phosphorous and their interactions on some vegetative and chemical traits of shrubby basil plant. The study included (16) treatments which are spraying the plant with four levels of acetate (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg-<sup>1</sup>) in the form of acetic acid. And four levels of phosphorous (Dipotassium phosphate K<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>). A pot experiment was conducted, where 1.5 kg of sandy mixture was placed in each pot, with peat moss added to it in a ratio of 1: 1 on the basis of volume. The traits were studied after 80 days of germination, where the height of the plant was measured and weight was measured dry total vegetative, surface area and measure the percentage of carbohydrates, proteins and total chlorophyll from the chemical content of plant leaves.</p> <p class="HIVABT">The acetate concentration significantly affected the characteristics of the vegetative mass such as plant height, dry weight of vegetative mass and leaf area, and the results were (59.15 cm, 17.07% and 18.08 cm. leaf<sup>-1</sup>) respectively at Concentration of 75 mg.<sup>-1</sup>(acetate spray) as acetate affected the chemical content of total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrates, the results were 110.39 mg/gm fresh weight, 18.66 fresh weight, and 45.95<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight) at a concentration of 75 mg. Liter <sup>-1 </sup>(acetate spray)</p> <p class="HIVABT">And the effect of phosphorous spray was significantly superior in increasing all the above-mentioned traits. At a concentration of 8 mg<sup>-1</sup>, the results were (60.47 cm: 16.69 % and 18.17 cm. leaf <sup>-1</sup>) for plant height, percentage of substance Leaf and leaf area, respectively. As for the effect of phosphorous spray on chemical properties, the results were (111.17 mg.100 gm<sup>-1</sup> of fresh weight and 18,055 of weight <sup>-1</sup>Soft 41.63 mg. g<sup>-1</sup>(Fresh weight) for total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrates, respectively. It also notes that the interaction between the two experimental factors had a significant effect on the studied vegetative characteristics when treating 75 mg. liter<sup>-1</sup> of acetate spray and 8 mg. liter <sup>-1</sup>of phosphorous spray, and the results were (68.8 cm, 18.46% and a 19.2 cm. leaf <sup>-1</sup>) for plant height, dry matter and leaf area.</p> <p class="HIVABT">As for the effect of the interaction on the chemical properties and the same treatment mentioned. The results were (112.19 mg.100gm fresh weight, 19.95<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight and 51.97<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight) for chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrates, respectively.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 First Record of the Fungus Rhizoctonia Solani that Causes Root Rot and Damping off on Catharanthus Roseas L. In Provinis Karbala And 2022-09-24T12:33:06+00:00 Noor A. AL-Ghazali Rajaa G. Abdalmoohsin Ahmed B. Abu-Duka <p>This study was conducted with the aim of isolating and diagnosing the fungus that causes root rot and seedling death of <em>Catharanthus roseas</em> L. in some nurseries in the governorates of Babylon and Karbala and to test its pathogenicity in the laboratory and under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that 30 isolates of the fungus <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> were phenotypically diagnosed. Isolate RK22 significantly outperformed the other isolates in reducing the percentage of germination of red radish seeds on Water agar media, as the germination percentage in it was 0.00% and the percentage of inhibition was 100% compared to the comparison treatment in which the percentage of seed germination was 100%. The results of the plastic pots experiment in the greenhouse also showed that the results matched the laboratory experiment, as isolate RK22 was significantly superior in reducing the germination rate, which amounted to 3.33% and an inhibition rate of 96.67% when treating the seeds of <em>Catharanthus roseas</em> plant with the isolated fungi compared to the comparison treatment, in which the percentage of germination reached 100%. The results of the molecular diagnosis showed that the most pathogenic isolate RK22 belongs to the fungus <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>, and it was deposited in the American Gene Bank underthe entry number.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Determination of the Social and Economic Burden of Gambling Harm in The Iraq 2022-09-24T12:38:48+00:00 Naji Yasser Saadoon Hewa Sattar Salih Hassanain Yahya Shimran <p>Research problem: Determination of the Social and Economic Burden of Gambling Harm in The IRAQ. Objectives: To assess the level of gambling addiction among the gambler in the Iraq’s' roulette casino. To find out the association between social burden and their demographic characteristics such us (gender, age, and economic status), and to determine the social and economic burden of gambling harm. Methodology: descriptive study is carried throughout to assess the impact of the gamble upon gamblers social and economic states in the Iraq’s roulette casino for the period of September 1st, 2018, to April 2nd, 2021. The present study is conducted in different settings that include roulette casino. A non-probability "purposive" sample of (232) participants is selected. An instrument was constructed for the intent of the study. It is content of (six) domains. The instrument included three parts: sociodemographic variables, gambling addiction and the social burden among the gambler in the Iraq’s' roulette casino. The researcher used descriptive statistics tools such as frequency, percentage, mean of score and used in inferential statistics such as Chi-Square. Results: The findings of the study indicate that the study samples (65.9%) they have severed gambling addiction level, while (18.1%) they have moderate gambling addiction level and (15.9%) they have mild gambling addiction level. Also, the findings of the study indicate that (58.2) they have moderate social burden level, while (26.3%) they have severed social burden level and (15.5%) they have mild social burden level. Conclusions: There is sever gambling addiction level. There is strong and high association between social and economic burden and gambling.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anatomical Pollen Study of Some Species Dicots Spp. grown in Al-Najaf governorate 2022-09-24T12:42:41+00:00 Amina Abd-almuhsen Muhammed Fadhil Kadhum Al-Ebrahimi <p class="HIVABT">This study investigated the Anatomical properties on some cultivated Dicots species belongs Apiaceae, Solanaceae and Malvaceae Family, Ap. graveolens,D. carota, P. crispum, F. vulgare, C. sativum, S. melongena and Ab. Esculentus. Growen in Al -Najaf governorate, the anatomical characteristics such as the length of the polar axis, the equatorial axis, and the percentage of between the the two axes have been studied a and determine the length of the groove and width, thickness of pollen Exine, and the type of ornamentation of wall, the species has been studied using light microscope and Scanning electron microscope and show the presence difference between the length (162 – 14.2) um, (121 – 12.3) um of polar axis and equatorial axis respectively, it was presence through the study that the species belog to the Apiaceae have aprorate – spheroidal while a oblate – spheroidal of the solanaeae Family species, on the other hand sphiodal – sub spheroidal on the Ab.esculentus and measured the wall thickness and it was found that Ab. esculentus larger from other species and determine that the pores and grooves was tricolporate and rarely tetracolporate excepte the Ab. esculentus was penta to polyporate and studied the spines (echinae) on the surface of pollen grians of Ab. esculentus and cosidered an important taxonomic characteristic and spreads randomly on the surface of the grain, the type of tectum was faint in Ab. graveolens, D. carota and P. crispum, F. vulgare, C. Sativum and An.graveolens was simple faint in S. lycopersicum and was psilate (smooth) in S. melongena and, While was reticulate in C. annum on equatorial view, and echinate gemmate in Ab. esculentus in polar and equatorial view, on the other hands the ornamentation was granulate in D. carota, F. vulgare, C. sativum and S. melongena, exine was simple scabrate in An. graveolens and was scabrate in the C. annum and P. crispum and was smooth in Ap. graveolens,and simple faint in S.lycopersicum on the polar view and was divided according the size to small, medium – small,and very large. further C. annum was Tricolporate and rarely tetracoporate while the F. vulgare and C.sativum was Tricolporate and Tetracolporate while S. lycopersicum was tetracolporate and dependes on the number considered monad in all species except for the species S. melongena mostly tetrad.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Categorization of health problems in patients attending Primary Health Centers in Kirkuk city/IRAQ 2022-09-24T12:45:11+00:00 Osama H. Othman <p class="HIVABT">Background: Primary Health Care is defined by the World Health Organization as essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them. Its objective is to deliver integrated health services. The aim of our study is To categorize the problems of people attending to primary health care, how this problems are managed, the satisfaction of patient and to describe experience of referrals from primary health care facilities to Azadi teaching hospital in Kirkuk city. Subjects&amp; methods: This is a facility-based study of the PHCCs in Kirkuk city. carried out during the study period (October to February 2013-2014). the total sample was 300 patients (at different sex and age). The tool used to collect the data was the interviewing sheet. Results &amp; Discussion: The sample was composed of 100 males (33.3%, ) and 200 females (66.7%).The two groups did not differ significantly in age. regarding the marital state (43%) of the patients were married. Regarding to the occupation the majority of the patients (57.3%) were unemployed, (23.7%) were children, (11 %) were students and only (8.3%) worked in government employer. The commonest presenting complaints were cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, vomiting, ophthalmological, dental problems, headache, fever &amp; immunization purposes. Overall there was agreement between the diagnoses of referring health worker and hospital staff. About 42.7 % of patients admitted to PHCs were referred to General hospital &amp; 56.3 % are treated as outpatients&amp; 40 % received medical treatment &amp; the remainder were children for immunization purposes &amp; those who have regular visits for follow up chronic diseases. Conclusions: It is likely that many patients by-pass primary care services because of the poorly available services, investigations, drugs and seniors compared to hospital services. Operational research on the style of referral letters might be of value in minimizing the use of referral systems by healthcare workers. Improve primary health centre facilities, increase number of physicians and increase compliance of patient to PHCs services to increase access to these centers to meet the need of people &amp; to decrease the number of referred cases, so, decrease the load in hospital.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Effect of Exercises with an Assistive Device on the development of the starting speed of shuttlecock and the accuracy of driver skill for players to (12-15 years) in badminton 2022-09-24T13:07:37+00:00 Ghofran Qasim Abd Al-wahid Hudhaifa Ibrahim Khalil Ali Jawad Abd <p class="HIVABT"><span class="q4iawc">Achieving sports achievements in many games in general and badminton in particular is closely related to various sciences, including kinetic learning and sports training that is concerned with the study of sports movements and work on diagnosing strengths and weaknesses and reaching skill to high learning stages that contribute to achieving achievement and the goal of the movement. The research problem is summarized by doing exercises with an assistant device that measures the height of the feather above the net with three heights. Point and win. The aim of the research is to identify the effect of exercises prepared with the auxiliary device on the variables of badminton launch and its accuracy of the frontal blow to players aged 12-15 years in badminton. The researchers used a sample of 6 players, who performed tribal tests on them, then the exercises prepared for them were applied, and then the post tests were conducted. The results were analyzed by the spss statistical bag, and then the results were discussed. The researchers reached the following conclusion The prepared exercises had a positive effect on improving the starting variables and the accuracy of the frontal strike for the players, the research sample The researchers also recommended the need to use exercises to improve the starting variables and the accuracy of the blow for players in other badminton skills, in addition to the use of assistive devices and techniques to accelerate the development of performance</span></p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Visual Evoked Potentials in Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Correlation with Glutathione Level as an Indicator of Oxidative Stress 2022-09-24T13:09:38+00:00 Rand S. Jassim Hanan L. Al-Omary <p class="HIVABT">Background: Multiple sclerosis implicit a high burden that is associated with reduced quality of life and a socioeconomic impact not only on the involved individual or family but on the whole health system. Glutathione is a thiol-containing molecule, as it functions as a main antioxidant Visually evoked potential refers to electrical potentials, initiated by transitory visual stimuli</p> <p class="HIVABT">Objective: the current study aim is to explore the correlation between glutathione level as a protective (antioxidant) and visual evoked potentials as a marker of early demyelination in MS patients. Patients and methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study that was conducted in Ghazi Al Hariri Hospital from the first of November 2021 to the end of January 2022. Fifty patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis were enrolled in the study and compared to 50 apparently healthy controls. For both groups visual evoked potentials were examined and glutathione level was measured using ELISA. All data were refined and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Independent t test was used to explore the difference between the two groups. Pearson Correlation was calculated to investigate the type of the relation between glutathione levels and VEPS results in MS cases. In all statistical analysis a p value ≤0.05 is considered significant. Results: The average age of MS cases was 33.52±8.01 years. The mean disease duration was 4.06±3.05 years. The study showed a significant difference between MS cases and controls.MS cases had longer latency periods, lower amplitude, high IO differences, and lower glutathione levels. There is a negative correlation between the latency period and glutathione levels. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was -0.418 (p- value = 0.002) for the left eye and r= -0.353 (p-value &lt; 0.012) for the right eye. Another significant negative correlation was reported between disease duration and glutathione levels (r = -0.339; p value=0.016). Conclusions and recommendations: The relatively cheap, non-invasive procedure of VEPs helps in detecting the demyelination process, in association with glutathione levels that demonstrate the presence of oxidative stress, which highlights a promising therapeutic supplement for MS cases.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Attitudes Regarding Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer Among a Sample of Paramedical Staff in Al- Najaf Governorate, Iraq. 2022-09-24T13:11:54+00:00 Alaa Mehdi Salih Atta Ah Mousa Al–Sarray <p>Background: HPV is one of the most prevalent a sexually transmitted infection (STI), involving both men and women, and 80 percent of individuals aged 50 years and older have reported developing genital HPV infection. Objectives: To determine the level of attitudes and practices regarding Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer among a sample of para medical. Subject and Methods: This an observational descriptive cross-sectional study done at five hospitals and twenty-five primary health care centers in Al-Najaf governorate. The data collection continued for four months started from the period of 19th December 2021 ending on 18th April 2022. Results: The current study was conducted on (500) Para-medical staff with age group ranging from (20-59) years and the highest percentage (66.4%) were from (20-29) years age group. While in gender the highest percentage in female was (64.6%). Most of para-medical staff (90.8%) living in urban area. and also The greater number of participants were medical institute about (51.6%) from total number while the lowest percentage about (2.4%) from secondary school, only (2.4%) of para-medical staff had training about Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. The majority of studied sample had good practice score regarding human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Conclusion: Most of studied samples (para-medical staff) had acceptable and good attitudes and practices scores. Recommendation: It is recommended to do National education programs on human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are needed to be presented to the public through cooperation between health authorities, society organizations and non-governmental organization.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Determination of Parameters Required to Enhance the Production of Prodigiosin by Serratia Marcescens with The Antimicrobial Activities Evaluation 2022-09-24T13:13:57+00:00 Yasir Jalil Oareed Alshueli Majida Malik Meteab Alshammari Merriam Ghadhanfar Alwan <p class="HIVABT">Prodigiosin has been recognized as an important subject of numerous extensive studies, due to its antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, cytotoxic, antitumor, antioxidant, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study investigation and reorganization the effect of different chemical and physical factors on the production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens and antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin were studied. The results showed the importance of some components such as (1.5% peptone, 3% sucrose, 0.3% glycerol, 0.1% Fe2(SO4)3 and 0.1 % BaCl2) to obtain an abundant amount of prodigiosin pigment by S. marcescens. Antimicrobial test revealed that prodigiosin pigment has an inhibitory role on S. mutans, S. aureus and B. subtilis, and this effect can be increased with increasing acidity at 35°C. In conclusion, Prodigiosin has antimicrobial activity that can be used to treat some of bacterial and fungal infections and the researcher can use many compound to enhance its bioactive activity.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The validity of CMV screening test in cervical smears using APERIO AT2. 2022-09-24T13:16:12+00:00 Basim Mohammed Khashman <p class="HIVABT">Background:The e-pathology provides a high quality slide imaging with the ability of sharing abroad providing the best mean for accurate diagnosis. Several studies pointed ou the role of Human cytomegalovirus in several cancers including cervical carcinoma. Material and method: Twenty-five slides stained with Papanicolaou test and diagnosed as cervicitis in the NCRC All the samples were scanned using Aprio AT2 to detect the presence of the CMV cytopathic effects. Reults: The are no evidence of the CMV in all the examined samples. Conclusion: The use of Aperio At2 in the routine work provides a haigh detailed images for the nosis with the utitlity of the telecommunications with different pathologists at different places.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022