Self-care practices in Italian people with HIV

Andrés Brito Villa1, RN; Maria Paola Caruso2, RN, MSN; Federica Dellafiore3, PhD, RN

1Cardiac Surgery Intensive Care Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy

2University of Milan, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy

3Health Professions Research and Development Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy

Abstract
The aim of our study was to measure self-care levels among people living with HIV. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Northern Italy between February and June 2019. Self-care behaviours were measured using the Self-Care of Chronic Illness Inventory and a sample of 108 individuals was enrolled. Adequate levels of self-care maintenance and monitoring (mean score ≥70) were implemented by only 24.8% and 36.2% of the sample, respectively. Self-care management was the least implemented dimension of self-care (mean score = 48.13 standard deviation ±17.80). Higher self-care was observed in newly-diagnosed individuals, whereas self-care confidence was higher in those with an older diagnosis, suggesting a trend of self-care through time. Our study revealed that self-care is poor in Italian people with HIV, and its level seems to decrease as the condition progresses. Further studies should be conducted to identify determinants of poor self-care, thus allowing for a better understanding of self-care in people with HIV.