Self-stigmatisation among Chinese individuals with HIV in Hong Kong: understanding the sociological basis of spiritually and culturally sensitive care

Jeffrey Yuk-Chiu Yip
Lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Caritas Institute of Higher Education, Hong Kong, China

Abstract
Self-stigma reduction programmes among persons with HIV have been the focus of recent nursing research; however, most studies have focused primarily on the quantitative relationships between programme constructs and health implications. Qualitatively, the development of self-stigma in the social context has received minimal attention. This novel study elucidates the sociological basis of spiritually and culturally sensitive care for people with HIV. This narrative analysis adopted a critical medical anthropology approach to identify the key determinants of self-stigmatisation in people with HIV. An extensive electronic literature search conducted 1995–2017 across four major healthcare databases suggested that an interplay of factors at diverse social levels fosters the development of self-stigma. These factors were discussed at the individual, microsocial, intermediate, and macrosocial levels. A critical and narrative synthesis of findings from a heterogenous body of literature may facilitate nursing clinicians to formulate holistic and evidence-based care for people with HIV.
Keywords: self-stigma, stigmatisation, social causes, HIV, critical medical anthropology