Exploration of Neuroprotective Potential of Siddha Herbal Formulation Brammiyathi Bhavanai Chooranam Using In-Vitro Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibition Assay
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that gets worse over time. It is characterised by the selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, followed by cognitive and behavioural impairments that progressively disrupt daily activities, resulting in impaired memory and behaviour, as well as loss of intellectual, social, and eventually death. In 2010, 35.6 million people worldwide were estimated to have dementia. As per AD International analysis, the cases will roughly quadruple in 20 years once, reaching 65.7 million and 115.4 million in 2030 and 2050 respectively. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a crucial enzyme which aggravates the deposition of amyloid protein and subsequent inflammation. AChE inhibition has been one of the common strategies for treating AD. The drugs available in the market are effective only against mild to moderate cases and have considerable side effects. Hence, the search for new options with more effectiveness and selective enzyme inhibitors with lesser side effects is necessary. Identifying structurally varied phytotherapeutics has emerged as one of the most current themes in novel medication discovery. This strategy clearly reduces the time and money required to produce a novel medicinal entity. Siddha system of medicine holds promising therapeutic potential with the availability of numerous viable formulations, but still, the majority of the preparation is not much explored for managing neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this current research work is to explore the potential of the Siddha herbal drug Bhavani Chooranam (BBC) in AChE enzyme inhibition by in-vitro Ellman's screening technique. Based on the result obtained, it is obvious that BBC successfully suppresses the AChE enzyme dose-dependently. The inhibition level at a concentration of 500 µg/ml was very much effective and the value was approximately 57.33±4.44 %, the corresponding IC50 value was 397.3±39.18µg/ml in comparison with the standard drug Physostigmine. It was concluded from the overall outcomes of the present investigation that formulations like Brammiyathi Bhavani Chooranam may be an ideal drug of choice for managing neurodegenerative diseases like AD.
Acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer's disease, Brammiyathi Bhavanai Chooranam, Neurodegeneration, Siddha