Respiratory Hypersensitivity Concomitant with Covid 19 Infection
Background: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a Worldwide emergency, as its rapid spread and high mortality rate had caused severe disruptions. Patients with COVID-19 can develop pneumonia, severe symptoms of acute respiratory distress and multiple organ failure. Patients with severe diseases showed lymphopenia, particularly the reduction in peripheral blood T cells. Patients with severe diseases were reported to have increased plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Infections of different types, viral, bacterial and mycotic were accused to induce hypersensitivity reactions in infected patients. Objectives: The study aimed to reveal the relationship between the hypersensitivity factors including serum total IgE , IL5 and eosinophils counts regarding the severity of Covid 19 infection in patients. Patients and Methods: Seventy-Five (75) patients were included in this study proved infected with Covid 19 by PCR and Chest CT scan investigations. They were admitted to AL-Shefaa Hospital, Ramadi city, Anbar Governorate ,Iraq. Blood specimen was taken from each patient, part of the specimen was used soon for CBC to reveal differential leukocyte count while the other part of the blood specimen was employed for serum pooling. Pooled serum was kept frozen to be used for serological investigation for total IgE and IL-5 using ELISA kit for each. Data was analyzed and plotted using SPSS. Results: Males infected with Covid19 were more than females and majority of patients were between 45 and 59 years of age higher mean values for IgE, IL5 and eosinophil count, patients with severe infection had higher values of IL5 and negative correlations between age and IL5 and IgE. Conclusion: In spite of low eosinophil counts were found in the blood of studied patients, high values of IgE and Il-5 were found in sera of Covid 19 patients , this reflects type 2 T helper reaction particularly type 1 hypersensitivity reaction accompanied with Covid 19 viral infections. Males within age group (45 and 59) constituted the majority of patients with severe Covid 19 infection, and low oesinophil counts. In the same time, high serum IgE titers and high serum IL5 values were linked with infection severity.
Allergy, IgE, COvid19, Infection and allergy.