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Rawaa Adday Ali Isam Mohammed Turki Entissar Abdul latif Abdul Reda Hamid Jaddoa Abbas Hanaa Addai Al Naser Ali Nase

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease- 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Interferon- λ1 (IFN‐λ1), also named Interleukin-29 (IL-29), is a new member of the IFN- family or Type III IFN. IL-29 is mainly produced by macrophages and maturing dendritic cells and involved in many immunological responses and indicates antiviral activity similar to type I interferons (T1IFNs). Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate some biomarkers and IL-29 levels among COVID-19 patients. Methods: A case- control study, that included (30) patients diagnosed with Covid-19 (19 males and 11 females), who attended to Merjan Teaching Hospital, Babylon, Iraq; and (30) apparently healthy subjects as a control group. Standard methods were used to measure the investigations. Results: The results revealed that there were highly significant increases (P value < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, ferritin, D-Dimer and IL-29; while, revealed highly significant decreases of zinc, copper and vitamin D levels (P value < 0.01) in COVID-19 patients when compared with control. The presented study also showed high odd ratio, sensitivity and specificity values for most biomarkers. Conclusion:  It was concluded that there were significant increases in levels of IL- 29, ferritin, liver enzymes, D dimer, CRP and LDH; while, decrease of Vitamin and trace elements in patients with COVID-19. Elevated levels of IL-29 and ferritin were signified worsening of COVID-19 infection. To monitor the progression of COVID-19, IL-29 and ferritin should be considered as potential biomarkers for severity in COVID-19.

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Keywords

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Interferon -λ1, interleukin- 29

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