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Tauseef Ali Memon Inayat Ali Khan Nawaf Fahad Dehrab Kamil Ziad Rajper Faima Rani Memon Sumera Mahar

Abstract

Background: Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is known to be the most common presenting case in the emergency department that requires prompt assessment and management. The rate of mortality due to this condition is 10-20%. ACPE is also a common reason for acute respiratory distress in patients landing in the emergency departments as well as intensive care units (ICU). Hypoxemia is a common clinical feature in the patients of ACPE that warrants ventilation support. However, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is preferred over invasive ventilation due to complications of intubation followed by invasive ventilation.Objectives: The study aims at comparing the clinical outcomes of standard oxygen therapy and continuous positive pressure (CPAP) ventilation in patients with ACPEStudy design: A comparative studyPlace and Duration this study was conducted in Sabah Alahmed Emergency Centre Kuwait from December 2021 to December 2022.Methodology: A total of 104 patients were considered in the present study from the emergency department of the hospital and ICU. All the patients had presented with ACPE. The patients were divided into two groups having 52 patients in each group. One group was called as control group and the patients in this group were treated with conventional oxygen therapy through an oxygen mask. The other group was called the study group and the patients in this group were given CPAP ventilation employing a full-face CPAP mask. All the patients were given standard treatment as per the protocols of the emergency departmentResults: There was a significant decline in the heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) and an increase in the oxygen saturation in the CPAP group. The difference between the CPAP and control groups is statistically significant (p <0.001). The study of CPAP showed a higher average decrease in the HR and RR. The studies also showed a higher average increase in oxygen saturation compared to the other group (p <0.001).Conclusion: The study shows that CPAP has better clinical outcomes compared to standard oxygen therapy. It is a more favourable technique in patients with ACPE. However, close monitoring of PaCO2 is essential.

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Keywords

Continuous positive air pressure, standard oxygen therapy, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, oxygen, ventilation

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